Migration of Clusters from Pre-session to Post-session: An Analysis of Elderly Students’ Perceived Digital Literacy
The Open University of Japan, Chiba-shi, Japan
The Open University of Japan (OUJ) has offered a face-to-face digital literacy training course (DLT) every semester at all 50 study centres since October 2010. Students attending DLT complete a checklist at the beginning and end of their course (Miwa et al., 2013; Miwa et al., 2016). The objective of this study was to identify how students migrated from one cluster to another, representing their self-reported perceived digital literacy skills pre- and post-course. The outcomes are relevant to the amendment of course content and student aftercare.
We analysed responses from 1417 students who attended DLT between Semester 2, 2014 and Semester 2, 2016 and completed all 20 items of both the pre- and post-course checklist. We developed clusters for pre- and post-course ability, based on each student’s reported ICT skill levels on each of the 20 checklist dimensions, using k-means and the Hartigan-Wong algorithm. We also analysed how each of the pre-course clusters were shifted to post-course clusters using a Sankey diagram. We also analysed students’ post-course checklist comments on DLT using a co-occurrence network method.
Four clusters (A, B, C, D) were developed from the pre-course checklist. Cluster A represents students who reported having high-level skills on all 20 items at the beginning of the DLT course. Cluster D represents students who were unfamiliar with personal computers at the beginning of the course. Clusters B and C lie in between. Four clusters (X, Y, Z, W) were developed from the post-course checklist. Cluster X represents students who reported having high-level ICT skills on all 20 items at the end of the course. Cluster W represents those who reported a low level of ICT skills on all 20 items. Clusters Y and Z were in between.
A Sankey diagram was developed to identify how students migrated from their pre-course cluster to their post-course cluster. Almost all members of Cluster A (high-level ICT skills) migrated to Cluster X (high-level skills at course end). About half the students in Cluster B migrated to Cluster Y, and the other half to Cluster Z. One-third of Cluster C students migrated to Cluster X, Y, or Z. A portion of Cluster D migrated to Cluster W. These results indicate that real beginners, who had never used a personal computer or the Internet before attending the DLT course, were left behind. We need to develop a framework for supporting students who migrate from Cluster D to Cluster W.
The co-occurrence analysis of students’ remarks showed themes of course value, and feelings of appreciation and anxiety.
Miwa, M. et al. (2013). Digital literacy training for elderly students at the Open University of Japan. In S. Kurbanoğlu et al. (Eds.), Worldwide Commonalities and Challenges in Information Literacy Research and Practice, European Conference on Information Literacy, ECIL 2013, Istanbul, Turkey, October 22–25, 2013: Proceedings (pp. 205–211). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
Miwa, M. et al. (2018). Changing patterns of ICT skills perceived by elderly learners. The LIBRES, 27, 1. Retrieved July 16, 2018 from. https://www.libres-ejournal.info/2525/
Gender Differences in Information Literacy among Brazilian Youngsters
1IBGE, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2IBICT, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Theme and Motivation
This work considers media and information literacy (MIL) indicators focusing on gender differences among Brazilians youngsters.
The importance of gender equality in knowledge society is being considered in the social and information science literature. Gender differences in science and technology, as well as in information technology, is unjust and has serious impact on overall societal development. It is well known that development in some societies has been accompanied by significant increase in gender equality in society.
Several authors, as well as international institutions, emphasize the importance of promoting information literacy aiming at the reduction of gender barriers limiting women’s liberty and autonomy. As a possible development of the information literacy concept, UNESCO proposes the concept of MIL, an approach that emphasizes the communication aspect of information literacy as well as other principles, such as human’s rights, attention to cultural diversity, and to the rights of societal segments, as it is the case of women’s rights (Moeler, 2011, Web Foundation, 2016). Focusing on the gender issue, we point out here that communication abilities are especially relevant for the empowerment of women. The social networks and social media sites are, according to Paris Declaration on Media and Information Literacy in the Digital Age (2014), referenced as new forms of social interaction as well as new rights and participation models such as global citizenship in a digital age.
In this study we focused on aspects of information and communication technology (ICT) use by a representative sample of the Brazilian student population. We considered how the social situation of these youngsters also weighed on their ICT use and how these social factors interacted with gender.
We analysed data from the 2016 survey of the Federal Bureau of Census (IBGE, 2016) that measured aspects of internet use of the Brazilian population. From this survey, which was recently made available to researchers, we selected students enrolled in high school, youngsters with the approximate age of 14 to 18 years. The main focuses of our analyses were measures about types of internet use, considered as indicators of aspects of information literacy.
We present the quantitative analyses, providing new indicators of gender differences in ICT access and use. We will follow this analysis with a qualitative study that will search for factors that can influence girls’ information literacy, notably their autonomy and liberty through ICT use.
European Media and Information Literacy (MIL) Forum. (2014). Paris declaration on media and information literacy in the digital age. Paris: Unesco.
IBGE. (2016). Pesquisa nacional por amostra de domicílios. Rio de Janeiro: IBGE.
Moeller, S. et al. (2011). Towards media and information literacy indicators. Paris: Unesco.
Web Foundation. (2016). Women’s rights online: Translatins access into empowerment. Stockholm: Sida.
Data Literacy Perception and Practices in the Information Environment
Comenius University in Bratislava, Slovakia
The aim of this paper is to address conceptual issues of data literacy perception and to present first results of a survey on research data practices in Slovakia. Data can be regarded as representations of objects, measured inputs / parameters, and entities used as evidence in the research (Borgman 2015). Data literacy represents a process of becoming aware of different modalities of how to acquire, process, use and interpret data. Types of research data include big data, open data, qualitative and quantitative data, and experimental, observational, sensory, cultural, simulated, or referential data (Borgman 2015). Research data literacy has been explained by Schneider (2013) and Koltay et al. (2016). Research data practices emerge in data-intensive sciences and research data management (Tenopir et al. 2015). In this context we ask the questions: Which factors influence the concept and typology of research data? What is the perception of data literacy and data practices by Slovak researchers?
A case study of research data literacy in Slovakia is presented as part of a multinational survey on Data Literacy and Research Data Management. We conducted an online survey of data literacy practices in 10 selected Slovak universities and the Slovak Academy of Sciences distributed through the LimeSurvey tool (December 2017 - January 2018). The analysis of the 257 completed answers shows that majority of subjects were academic staff (71.21%), including natural sciences (40.47%), social sciences (17.12%) and engineering (16.34%). Limitations of the survey are low response rate and self-selection of subjects.
First findings point to positive perception of data practices by the researchers, involving willingness to share and re-use research data (52%). The majority of subjects claimed that their data is available upon request (56.42%). However, they expressed concerns about misuse (40.86%), misinterpretation of data and data ethics (63%). Differences across disciplines were noted. 73% of subjects have never used data management plan for their research, about 60% think that universities should have a data management plan. 65% are familiar with metadata standards, but 53.86% of subjects have never used metadata tagging for their data. Most subjects are interested in research data management education.
The study proved that data management needs of researchers are embedded in practice of disciplines. Main factors of research data literacy are data needs, access, evaluation, sharing, citation, data use and re-use. Other factors are tools, resources, social structures, publishing strategies, technology, and digital scholarship. We propose the perspective of data ecosystems, data literacy education, and research data management services of academic libraries. It is suggested to develop data infrastructures and data management policies with recognition of the different cultures of disciplines.
Borgman, C. L. (2015). Big data, little data, no data: Scholarship in the networked world. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Koltay, T., Špiranec, S., & Karvalics, L. Z. (2016). Research 2.0 and the future of information literacy. Amsterdam: Chandos.
Schneider, R. (2013). Research data literacy. In S. Kurbanoğlu et al. (Eds.), Worldwide Commonalities and Challenges in Information Literacy Research and Practice, European Conference on Information Literacy, ECIL 2013, Istanbul, Turkey, October 22–25, 2013: Proceedings (pp. 134–140). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
Tenopir, C. et al. (2015). Changes in data sharing and data reuse practices and perceptions among scientists worldwide. PloS ONE, 10(8). Retrieved from http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0134826