Using Constructive Alignment to Support Metaliteracy in International Classrooms
1King’s College London, UK; 2Zayed University, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
Diverse classrooms provide unique opportunities for students (and teachers) to learn from one another. Applying metaliteracy frameworks can help instructors synthesize module content with literacy instruction. For instance, prompting students to discuss their information seeking practices with peers promotes critical reflective practices about how they are using information to communicate. While there are theories and frameworks for building and assessing metaliteracy skills, we argue that they do not account for culturally diverse understandings of analytical or reflective assessment and intellectual property. Thus, it is necessary to explore methods for adapting metaliteracy frameworks so that we acknowledge and incorporate diverse language, cultural and disciplinary perspectives into the delivery of module content and assessment of student learning.
We propose two strategies for supporting the development and application of metaliteracy for international students: Learning oriented assessment (LOA) and constructive alignment. Carless (2007) proposes LOA as a method for balancing formal (marked) and informal (unmarked) activities so that students experience a range of assessment types and receive continuous and diverse feedback on their learning. The dynamic types of work and feedback students experience allows them to synthesize technical skills, theoretical and pre-existing skills and encourages students to structure their own learning, which, in turn, offers opportunities for module tutors to identify and adapt to student’s interests and abilities. In terms of literacy instruction and benchmarking LOA offers opportunities for English as a second language (ESL) students to practice the critical reflective elements promoted in metaliteracy theories and to integrate these practices into their engagement with English language materials and academic frameworks. This process presents opportunities to integrate cultural awareness into metaliteracy frameworks. Constructive alignment offers a theoretical framework for using LOA to expand the potential for using metaliteracy frameworks. Drawing on Biggs and Tang’s (2011) research, we understand constructive alignment as a conscious effort to create a holistic curriculum and, thus, provides opportunities to implement metaliteracy frameworks while simultaneously acknowledging the biases and assumptions express in IL and metaliteracy research.
To situate the compatibility of these theories, we present a case study based on longitudinal observations of a group of international postgraduate students in an interdisciplinary department at a UK Russell Group college. Whilst the department fosters a dynamic learning environment, module formats and assessment criteria can pose challenges for ESL students. We describe how theories of constructive alignment supported the development and implementation of learning outcomes, both for the module’s entire curriculum and for weekly lectures and seminars. Discussing learning outcomes as the cornerstone for lecture topics and seminar exercises will contextualize methods for engaging students in LOA, and how these opportunities framed metaliteracy practices based on the use of peer feedback in summative assessments. We will draw conclusions about the roles LOA and metaliteracy can play in constructive alignment the module’s based on analyses of student feedback and peer review for quality assessment purposes.
Biggs, J., & Tang, C. (2011). Teaching for quality learning at university. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.
Carless, D. (2007). Learning oriented assessment: Conceptual bases and practical implications. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 44(1), 57–66.
Foundations of Information Literacy Trends: A Textual Data Based Analysis on International Frameworks
Université de Montréal, Canada
Since the concept’s emergence during the 1970s, an amazing quantity of literature has been developed on and about information literacy, especially in Anglo-Saxon countries (Bruce, 2011; Rader, 2002; Sparks, Katz, & Beile, 2016). But the globalization of the debate about the scope and meaning of the phrase ‘information literacy’ contributed to the appearance of non-Anglo-Saxon frameworks. Furthermore, they contributed to the identification of local and cultural particularities. For example, standards of culture informationnelle or culture de l’information (Information culture or Culture of information) appeared in French authors' considerations since the 1990s (Baltz, 1998; Serres, 2007). This approach builds bridges with information literacy concepts, while nurturing a debate which involves media education (Kerneis, 2010; Kerneis & Lanhers, 2015) or a criticism of utilitarian visions (Simonnot, 2009). That said, these concepts have not been fully adopted in other French-speaking countries, like in Québec. Considering this conceptual evolution, this presentation will review some of the cleavages in recent literature. For this, we studied texts based on lexical proximity in English (73%) and French (27%) skills frameworks. 135 documents (related to 21st century skills or information literacy and digital literacy) have been selected based on their relevance. They have been chosen among professional or school standards, academic frameworks as well as “meta-frameworks” (frameworks based on frameworks) or scientific reviews of frameworks. We will explain how they have been manually categorized according to their origin, language, nature of the audience, educational level and hierarchical organization type. In addition, we will also expose how this review was operated with IRaMuTeQ (Ratinaud, 2017), a statistical and textual analysis free software (GNU/GPL): frameworks have been systematically prepared and coded for IRaMuTeQ, which allows us to schematically bring out recurrence frequency and lexical proximity to analyze use contexts of major expressions or concepts. Finally, results seem to reflect significant differences depending on the language of the model (in French or in English). For example, French-speaking countries frameworks emphasize teachers and the use of technology, whereas those in English-speaking countries highlight learners and learning. These results appear to qualify or contradict some assumptions made in the early 2000s, for example, the fact that digital solutions are considered much more a panacea in Anglo-Saxon countries than other countries (Bundy, 2002). In conclusion, this review proposes several hypotheses to explain these inclinations considering trends that reflect cultural and organizational specificities in literacy models.
Baltz, C. (1998). Une culture pour la société de l’information?. Documentaliste, 35(2), 75–82.
Bruce, C. (2011). Information literacy programs and research: An international review. The Australian Library Journal, 60(4), 326–333.
Bundy, A. (2002). Growing the community of the informed: Information literacy: A global issue. Australian Academic & Research Libraries, 33(3), 125–134.
Kerneis, J. (2010). Didactique de l’éducation aux médias et culture informationnelle. In É. Delamotte, & F. Chapron (Eds.), Éducation à la culture informationnelle (pp. 269–277). Paris, France: Presses de l’ENSSIB.
Kerneis, J., & Lanhers, L. (2015). Une éducation aux médias intégrée à la formation professionnelle en alternance des professeurs-documentalistes en France. Colloque Éducation aux médias et pratiques pédagogiques innovantes. Paris, France. Retrieved from https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01143540
Rader, H. B. (2002). Information literacy 1973-2002: A selected literature review. Library Trends, 51(2), 242–259.
Serres, A. (2007). Questions autour de la culture informationnelle. The Canadian Journal of Information and Library Science, 31(1), 69–85.
Simonnot, B. (2009). Culture informationnelle, culture numérique: Au-delà de l’utilitaire. In A. Serres (Ed.), Penser la culture informationnelle (pp. 25–37). Paris, France: Hermes science publications: Lavoisier.
Sparks, J. R., Katz, I. R., & Beile, P. M. (2016). Assessing digital information literacy in higher education: A review of existing frameworks and assessments with recommendations for next-generation assessment. ETS Research Report Series, 2016(2), 1–33.
Copyright Literacy of LIS Students in the Czech Republic
Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic
The basic service of libraries and other cultural heritage institutions is to make information accessible. But at the same time information is (or was) protected by copyright. Correct handling of author’s’ works requires a sufficient level of copyright literacy. It „include[s] identifying copyright-protected materials, navigating fair use and fair dealing, obtaining permissions and licenses where necessary, and recognizing infringement of copyright law.“ (Harris, 2017) Expansion of digital technologies has brought new needs which should be reflected in copyright literacy (Morrison & Secker, 2015). Tania Todorova (Bulgaria) initiated an international research team whose aim has been to map copyright literacy among librarians since 2013. The results showed that copyright literacy is an important topic and a part of library practice. But at the same time, the study identified shortcomings in the competencies of librarians (Todorova et al., 2017). Preparing for a job in library and information services is the goal of Library and Information Science (LIS) departments. Therefore, the extended research group focused on LIS students in 2017.
Objectives and Methodology
The aim of the paper is to present the results of the survey focused on the knowledge and opinions of LIS students in relation to copyright literacy in the Czech Republic. The results will allow us to revise the LIS curriculum to fit current needs. This research study is part of a multinational survey. It strives for better national and international standardization of the competencies of LIS students, and consequently, also of staff in libraries, the cultural heritage sector and in both commercial and noncommercial information services, as well as cooperation in improving their copyright literacy.
Data collection took place via an online questionnaire in LimeSurvey between 9th November 2017 and 31st January 2018. The questionnaire link was distributed to all LIS students in the Czech Republic via the communication channels of individual departments, where the managers were asked to cooperate on distribution. We received 199 responses covering all three universities (and grades) where LIS is taught in the Czech Republic. The research sample included both students educated and not educated in analyzed topics.
This research study has identified a number of problems with student knowledge. Students did not know about copyright protection of specific types of works – some not closely connected with libraries (dance, choreography and pantomime – incorrectly answered by 30.7%). In addition, however, problems were noted with databases (27.1% incorrect answers) or unpublished works (e.g. theses, 16.1%). Students rated fairly negatively their copyright literacy competences (especially the international context), even though copyright is a topic in a mandatory subject in all three universities, and 89.9% of respondents agree that librarians must be familiar with copyright issues. A majority, 61.3% of the respondents, also stated that it is necessary to include intellectual property rights in the LIS curricula, with 77.4% placing it at the bachelor level. Students would welcome the extension of their education in copyright literacy as opposed to continuing in the current state, especially in the international context, and along with more detailed solutions of practical issues (e.g. digitization or e-learning).
Harris, L. E. (2017). Copyright literacy and translating copyright to a life skill. Retrieved February 5, 2018 from https://www.copyrightlaws.com/copyright-literacy-copyright-life-skill/
Morrison, C., & Secker, J. (2015). Copyright literacy in the UK: A survey of librarians and other cultural heritage sector professionals. Library and Information Research, 39(121), 75–97.
Todorova, T. Y. et al. (2017). Information professionals and copyright literacy: A multinational study. Library Management, 38(6/7), 323–344.
Cultural Implications of the ACRL Framework
University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV, USA
The Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education (Framework) is a document created by the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL, 2015) for academic librarians to use as a guiding document in their information literacy instruction practice. Because ACRL positions itself as a leader in the field of information literacy, the Framework is likely to be used by librarians to guide instructional practice outside of the western culture in which it was created. Salaz & MacGregor (2016) characterize the ACRL Framework as one document within a body of national frameworks „that are likely to reflect the perspective and priorities of the source nation“ (p. 47). The six frames and the theories that undergird the Framework are culturally western; however, the utilization of this framework outside of western contexts will likely have cultural implications that merit consideration. Each frame poses potential challenges for librarians and disciplinary faculty members who try to apply the frames in different cultural contexts and with students from different cultural backgrounds. For example, embedded within the frames is the American idea of questioning and challenging authority, which might be antithetical to or problematic in the context of non-American cultural values.
This paper provides an in-depth literature review related to the cultural implications of the ACRL Framework as applied within and outside of North American contexts. The paper clarifies common language around cultural values, including the terms cultural sensitivity, cultural humility, and cultural competence in order to provide context for the discussion of literature on the ACRL Framework in a range of cultural contexts. The authors also discuss each of the six frames in the ACRL Framework, identifying cultural implications of each.
The purpose of this literature review is to expand awareness of the cultural implications of this document. The ACRL Framework was filed fairly recently, in 2015, and in the wake of rescinding the Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education (2000) in 2016, use of this framework is increasing worldwide, thereby increasing the demand for critical discussions around the implications of its contents. This paper provides readers with a departure point for informed reflection on the ACRL Framework and their instructional practices as related to students’ cultural experience.
Association of College and Research Libraries. (2000). Information literacy competency standards for higher education. Retrieved February 15, 2018 from https://alair.ala.org/handle/11213/7668
Association of College and Research Libraries. (2015). Framework for information literacy for higher education. Retrieved February 15, 2018 from http://www.ala.org/acrl/standards/ilframework
Salaz, A., & MacGregor, T. (2016). Have frameworks, will travel: Extending the frameworks into transnational higher education. In R. McClure, & J. P. Purdy (Eds.), The Future Scholar: Researching and Teaching the Frameworks for Writing and Information Literacy (pp. 45–62). Medford, NJ: Association for Information Science and Technology.