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Session Overview
1-SP145: Sexuality and Development
Monday, 05/July/2021:
3:30pm - 4:45pm

Session Chair: Brenda Rodríguez, ISS, Netherlands, The
Session Chair: Chitrakshi Vashisht, International Institute of Social Studies the Netherlands, Netherlands, The
Session Chair: Dr. Silke Heumann, EUR, Netherlands, The

Session Abstract

Sexuality has been largely overlooked in mainstream development studies and practice (Cornwall and Jolly, 2006; Correa and Jolly, 2008). But sexuality relates and intersect with other areas of our lives, from religion to social rules, from the economy to political struggles. However, sexuality has been predominantly explored in a negative and limited way. Research on HIV/AIDS, population control, STI, etc. are some examples of this perspective wherein sexuality is seen as something dangerous that has to be contained and managed. Moreover, most of the research on sexuality also fails to recognize it as an intersectional issue and thereby is dominated by a gender binary (man/woman) and even a sexual binary (homosexuality/heterosexuality). Post-colonial and decolonial feminists have problematized these mainstream development views on sexuality (Harcourt and Icaza, 2014). Similarly, other research has further argued the importance of sexuality in development and considers it is an important category of analysis that intersects with class, caste, race, gender, political status etc. and that ultimately has an impact on social justice including but not limiting to sexual and reproductive rights (Cornwall and Jolly, 2008) and erotic justice. This panel hopes to bring together researchers exploring the field of sexuality in development studies, we welcome papers that move beyond the dominant frame of exploring sexuality(ies) and bring in creative and innovative approaches, methods and ideas. The panel aims to provide a vibrant space for discussing potential and ongoing research in any stage, from idea to results. Young researchers from the Global South are especially encouraged to apply.

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Sexual and Reproductive Health Rights in Education Curriculum of Bangladesh : A Gender Lens on Bangladesh Secondary Education

Hasne Ara Begum

BRAC, Bangladesh, People's Republic of Bangladesh

Education directly influences and is influenced by the cultural, political and economic value system of a country. Even after 44 years of national independence, the Bangladesh education system still faces uncertainty and frequent changes and experimentation as a result of changes in the ruling government. The absence of a broader educational philosophy, despite the need for a unified national education system and curriculum, is a result of divergent political interests. This is particularly the case with Sexual and Reproductive Health Rights (SRHR) education. Religion has a great influence on the cultural value system of Bangladesh and plays a strong role in educational reform. Though Bangladesh has achieved gender parity in primary education, education is still the political instrument for social and cultural reproduction and an agent for exercising power-dominance which contributes to gender inequality (Codd et al., 1985). This paper focuses on the secondary curriculum and argue that, to be truly emancipatory, SRHR curriculum will need to challenge the prevailing social-cultural norms that shape the broader education system and philosophy. A critical feminist perspective is used to explicate the ideas embedded within the sexual and reproductive health curriculum and the way young girls and young boys are positioned in the socio-cultural context of Bangladesh. The paper uses texts as the primary data source. The introduction of sexuality and reproductive health education in mainstream public education curriculum is a big step forward for Bangladesh. However, opening a concrete pathway for learners within this new curriculum is the big challenge.

Subjectification and Objectification of Female Bodies in Contemporary Nigerian Music

Adeboye Amos Tinubu

Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria

The Nigerian music scene has been experiencing remarkable improvement and development nationally and internationally since the turn of the 21st century. The music industry has successfully carved a niche for itself as arguably one of the best and financially rewarding in Africa. The revenue from Music jumped from 26 million U.S dollars in 2014 to 34 million U.S dollars in 2018 and projections have it that the revenue will keep growing.[1] Though Nigerian music space is financially rewarding, there have been debates concerning the contents and contexts of the song. This paper attempts to interrogate the subjectification and objectification of the female bodies in Nigerian music, particularly the way the female body is being projected in music lyrics and videos and also examine how these acts contribute to the discourse of female emancipation and identity in Nigeria and Africa. This paper will rely on the qualitative method of obtaining data. Female video vixens, producers, officials from government and non-governmental agencies, and musicians will be interviewed and data shall be gathered from secondary sources such as journal articles, newspapers, textbooks, and online publications.


Locating Dalit In Queer Theory- A 'Complex' Need of Dalit Perspective In Queer Theory

Neeraj Kumar

Ambedkar University Delhi, India

The violence against gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender activists during 1990 in west originated queer politics, means, ‘in your face’. The noteworthy documentation is, younger generation term queer politics during the time, maybe, till now, is eager to confront normalizing power, by amplifying, celebrating, and emphasizing on anti-normative and non-stable behaviour (Cohen 1997). Further in queer politics, the discourse of sexuality and around sexuality has been limited, defined, focused, at its best; centralize sexuality & sexual categories, the social construction of it and its multiple distributed powers within all kinds of sexuality, including heterosexuality. The eminent theorists such as Eve Sedgwick, Diana Fuss, Micheal Warner and Judith Butler produced and theorized ‘Queer theory’. These scholars critical examined the ‘hetero-gendered’ framework in dominant and marginal identities and located discursive, cultural, and socio markers of identities using postmodernist and post-structuralism theoretical perspective (Telis 2015). The focus of queer theorisation, though, obviously focused at hetero-normativity and heterosexuality, but who are ‘heterosexual’? Do ‘all’ heterosexual have same power dynamics? Cohen, hence, argues that queer politics, as queer theory, is opposition to category-based identity politics of lesbian and gay politics. (Cohen 1997). Indian queer theorist, Tellis, in their work argues the term ‘Queer’ being the product of neo-liberal economy and theorists, queer theorists, feminists and activist have agreement on it time’s of origin, early 1990. Tellis in their paper brings a serious objection to the tern ‘Queer’ and it’s in-just to the subjects. They object on the applicability of the ‘Queer’ term and explains it alienation in their paper. Its reminds of me Tagore idea of Nationalism and his rejection of west nationalism and civilization in India, on the same lines I feel Tellis seems to very angry on the import of ‘Queer’ term and its limitation to hold, capture and do justice to experiences of same-sex subjects in India (Tagore 2010) (Telis 2015) The caste preference, discrimination and hegemony in the online-dating platforms are clearly and enforce the devil structure of ‘caste’ in India (Khubchandani 2019). Many ‘Dalit’ (schedule caste) queer have initiated documentation and blowing academia with the caste hegemony in their lives (Kang 2017) (Jyoti 2017). Can we just incorporate caste with queerness, queer theory and in intersectional exercise to understand the burden and pain of the ‘Dalit’ queer in India? The exercise of ‘Intersectionality’ and analysis of identities produces nuanced problems with hetero-normativity and other structures such as race, religion and sex but can the same analysis be used in Indian context will ‘just’ the ‘Dalit’ queer experiences? (Yekani 2010) Gopal Guru in his famous article on ‘Dalit women speaks differently’ mentions the status of women, and their double marginalization in Dalit movement (Guru 1995). Manorama (Dalit woman) says that women are ‘Dalit among Dalit (Manorama 2006), now the question of queerness and theorisation may not be as similar as the global phenomenon of ‘Race’. People of colour have become a larger discourse of today, maybe, due to the west appearance there, caste question remains unquestioned as it may and is seen in Indian dominantly. The intersectional analysis of incorporating Dalit in queerness can provide marginalization and burden level, but can also fail to theories the identity model of queer, queer theory and queerness in India. In India even though with legal forces controlling and claiming to protect ‘Dalits’, the atrocities, violence, suicides and untouchability is still practised. I strongly feel the need to theories ‘Dalit’ in queerness to provide and help to meet its ‘Radical Potential of Queerness’ (Choen 1997). I propose to locate sexuality through the lens of ‘Dalit’ to nuance and theories ‘Dalit’ queer politics in India.

Communicating Difficulty: A Linguistic Analysis of Doctor-Patient Gynaecological Encounters in Ghana

Beatrice Oforiwaa Dankyi

University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana

Effective doctor-patient communication is critical for good healthcare outcomes. At the same time, numerous studies (Meuter et al, 2015; Manias et al, 2015; De moissac & Bowen, 2019) have shown that significant barriers to communication exist which have negative consequences on patients’ health outcomes. In Ghana, gynaecological encounters present a potential barrier to communication as discussions on issues of sexual and reproductive nature are culturally abhorred: Particularly, when persons of the opposite sex are involved. As a result, accessing healthcare on gynaecological issues could be unnerving for women in the current male-dominated field of gynaecology. This study explored the linguistic features employed by both patients and doctors in negotiating possible cultural and linguistic barriers to communication during consultations. Using the theories of Communication Accommodation (Giles, 1971) and Facework (Goffman, 1967; Domenici & Littlejohn, 2006), the linguistic features of doctor-patient interactions were examined. Employing a qualitative perspective, doctor-patient consultation sessions, at two health facilities in Ghana were observed, audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data was analyzed using the NVivo software package. Findings from the study revealed the frequent use of euphemisms and metaphors in reference to intimate body parts and actions. In addition, it was realised that, patients relied heavily on doctors for sentence completion, resulting in the dominance of doctors throughout interactions. Overall, indirection and practitioner dominance tend to characterize doctor-patient gynaecological encounters within the socio-cultural context of Ghana, especially during medical care delivery.

Re-thinking Transnational LGBTI+ And Feminist solidarities: Gendered Inequalities In The LGBTI+ Movement In Nepal

Kumud Rana

University of Glasgow, United Kingdom

Feminist critiques of NGO-isation as depoliticisation and neo-liberal co-optation of feminist activism (Lang 1997, Alvarez 1998, 1999) have evolved since the 1990s to acknowledge that the ‘NGO form’ (Brenal and Grewal 2014) has also been a crucial site of feminist interventions in the global South (Alvarez 2014, Hodzic 2014). This is true for places with limited resources crucial for social justice movements, with resources increasingly allocated to NGOs through development aid. My paper analyses the extension of LGBTI+ and feminist solidarity and support by taking a case study of three lesbian NGOs within the LGBTI+ movement in Nepal. I map out national and international networks of these NGOs, juxtaposing this onto the resources available to each. I argue that differential access of organisations to resources are governed by their organisational identities and the exclusive nature of transnational LGBTI+ and feminist solidarity networks. Furthermore, I contrast the delimitations of subjectivities embedded within activist networks with those only loosely tied to such networks to discuss some of the limitations of postcolonial recuperative approaches to queer-feminist analysis. By doing so, I emphasise the need to re-think and re-imagine transnational LGBTI+ and feminist solidarities in contexts where such solidarities might collude with neo-imperial projects of development as in the case of Nepal.

My analysis is drawn from the first extensive sociological study of the LGBTI+ movement in Nepal which included seven months of fieldwork in the country comprising participant observation, document analysis & interviews with 41 Nepali LGBTI+ activists, 20 trans/national human rights/feminist/queer/LGBTI+ allies & six donors including feminist philanthropic organisations.

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