Conference Agenda

Overview and details of the sessions of this conference. Please select a date or location to show only sessions at that day or location. Please select a single session for detailed view (with abstracts and downloads if available).

Please note that all times are shown in the time zone of the conference. The current conference time is: 18th Jan 2022, 05:42:15am CET

External resources will be made available 60 min before a session starts. You may have to reload the page to access the resources.

 
 
Session Overview
Session
6-SP030: Social Inclusion of Rural-Urban Migrants in South-East Asia
Time:
Wednesday, 07/July/2021:
12:30pm - 1:45pm

Session Chair: Dr. Edward Lahiff, University College Cork, Ireland

Session Abstract

Rural-urban migrants in South-East Asia, often poor and relatively unskilled, struggle to establish themselves in urban spaces, and face a range of social, economic and bureaucratic barriers to achieving access to decent work and social benefits. Civil society organisations attempt to fill the gaps in policy, but often face hostility from the state. Social inclusion depends on solidarity between rural and urban people, and across social classes, and contributes greatly to peace and social justice. Papers are invited that address current challenges of social inclusion at the level of theory, international comparative studies and country-specific empirical studies.


Show help for 'Increase or decrease the abstract text size'
Presentations

The Impacts of Microfinance on Empowering Rural Women through the Role of Women Union – Insights from Vietnam

Long Bui

Technological University Dublin, Ireland

Vietnam is considered as one of the fastest growing economies in the Southeast Asian region, but it is also a country affected by significant issues around gender imbalances. As such, this study offers a valuable contribution as its engages with a quantitative analysis of microfinance tools and the role that the can play to help empowering rural women in Vietnam. The rural women are important economic actors which social and economic contribution is quite often neglected within their families and their communities. A sample of 351 women borrowers is studied in the Tra Vinh province located in the Mekong Delta in the southern region of Vietnam. The empirical outcomes highlight that microfinance tools has enable women borrowers to have access to needed financial resources that has allowed them to exercise some level of control over their own own income and savings, which have facilitated their access to financial resources that they can use to look after their children, family needs and in some cases for their own use. The role of the women’s union has been crucial to help bridging loans between microfinance providers and their memberships to promote economic independence and social roles for Vietnamese women in the rural areas. The study also evaluated the social inclusion in Vietnam through the role of Women’s union in sustainable development goals.



Minorities on the Move: Changing Migration Strategies and Destinations of Ethnic Minorities in Vietnam

Timothy Gorman1, Christine Bonnin2

1Montclair State University, United States of America; 2University College Dublin, Ireland

Vietnam has experienced massive waves of internal migration since the beginning of economic reforms in the 1990s. Much research on this migration, however, has focused on the country’s majority population of ethnic Vietnamese (or Kinh), while less attention has been paid to the other ethnic groups that make up a sizable minority of the country’s population. This paper draws on a mix of secondary survey data and interviews with migrants from two main ethnic groups — the Hmong of Vietnam’s northwest and the Khmer of the Mekong Delta in the country’s south — to first determine, first, the scale of migration and the key destinations of these two groups and, second, to assess the drivers and motivations that underpin their respective migration strategies.

What we find is that, despite prevailing stereotypes within Vietnam that cast minority communities as isolated, traditional, and passive in the face of change, members of these groups — and especially younger people — are engaged in migration on a large and growing scale, most notably to Vietnam’s cities and industrial zones. This migration, however, does not simply reflect aspirations for economic improvement or educational opportunities, but reflects the acute pressures faced by ethnic minority communities in rural Vietnam, where traditional agrarian livelihoods are being undermined by both economic integration and environmental change.



Social Justice and Social Inclusion of Rural Migrants in Hanoi City: Does Public Policy Meet the Challenge?

Thu Thi Anh Vu1, Nicholas Guy Chisholm2

1VNU, University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, Vietnam; 2University College Cork, Ireland

There has been substantial migration of rural people to urban areas of Vietnam in recent years. Migrants, many of them low-skilled, poorly educated and relatively poor, constitute a marginalised and vulnerable group within the cities, and struggle to access housing, employment and social services such as health and education for themselves and their families.

Official policy in Vietnam, in areas such as housing, health, education and employment, acknowledges the challenges presented by rural-urban migration, but state agencies at national, provincial and city level often lack the capacity to respond to the needs of migrants in a meaningful way. The ho khau (household registration system) effectively links access to a range of social services to a permanent residence, thereby creating an institutional barrier for many migrants workers (particularly those outside the formal sector) to avail of such services. As a result of these factors, the social and economic integration of migrants has been slow. Against this background, a range of civil society organisations are working with migrant workers, and the state agencies, to raise concerns and press for policy reforms that address the needs of migrants and their families.

Ensuring justice and enhancing social inclusion are the specific policy objectives of the Vietnamese government towards 2035. It is, therefore, important to identify gaps in service provision, institutional barriers, and the extent to which policies in particular sectors are sufficiently “joined-up” to enable social and economic inclusion of migrant workers and their families. This paper uses a holistic perspective to interrogate a range of government policies that directly or indirectly address the needs of migrants – particularly those working in the informal sector - in accessing public services and social inclusion in Hanoi. This includes a review of key state policies, institutional arrangements for policy development and implementation, the roles of various actors, existence of barriers and gaps, and the extent of cross-sectoral linkages which might enable a more comprehensive and joined-up approach. It is based on extensive literature review and in-depth interviews with key informants across the policy domain, including government departments, prominent civil society organisations and multilateral bodies such as the ILO, UN Women and UNFPA. The findings will be of direct relevance to local and national government agencies, to civil society organisations working in the field, and to donors and other international bodies seeking to advance the rights and the social inclusion of vulnerable groups.



Social Inclusion of Rural-Urban Migrants: A Review of Recent Trends in the Mekong Region

Edward Lahiff1, Quang Minh Pham2

1University College Cork, Ireland; 2University of the Social Sciences and Humanities, VNU, Vietnam

Rural-to-urban migrants, many of them low-skilled, poorly educated and relatively poor, constitute a highly marginalised and vulnerable group within urban spaces, and often struggle to access housing, employment and social services such as health and education. Within this, women are often doubly disadvantaged in terms of employment, exploitation, violence and the added burden of domestic responsibilities towards spouses, children and parents. Social services in the cities of South East Asia, including housing, education, health and welfare, are typically severely overburdened, and discriminate against new arrivals. Employers, too, often operate a two-tier system, favouring those with a permanent base in the urban area. As a result, many migrants must take recourse to poor quality, informal housing, often without any tenure security, where they may be subject to various forms of exploitation. Lack of education, appropriate skills or access to formal employment opportunities means that many migrants end up working in the informal economy of petty trading, garbage recovery, domestic work or as unregistered workers within sectors such as construction and manufacturing.

Official policy in areas such as housing, health, education and employment generally acknowledges the challenges presented by rural-urban migration, but implementation often falls short of expectations. State agencies at national, provincial and city level often lack the capacity, or the will, to respond to the needs of migrants in a meaningful way. Social protection policies, while evolving rapidly, generally do not provide adequate coverage for migrants operating in the informal economy. As a result, the social and economic integration of migrants has been slow. Against this background of deficiencies in state policy and provision, there have emerged are a range of non-government organisations specifically concerned with meeting the needs of migrants and their families.

The objective of this study is to provide a critical understanding of policies and programmes from state and non-state actors that address, directly or indirectly, the social inclusion of rural to urban migrants in the Mekong region, focusing on Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos. Key issues addressed include employment policies, access to housing, health, education and welfare services, social protection, and the legal regulation of migrants in urban areas.

This paper is based on extensive analysis of policy documents and project reports from a range of actors, including government departments, non-governmental organisations and multilateral bodies such as the ILO and UNFPA, along with in-depth interviews with key informants in state and non-state organisations.



Social Inclusion And Social Solidarity In Vietnam: The Role Of NGOs In Supporting The Mobilisation Of Migrant Worker Groups And Advocating Policy Reform

Thi Thuy Trang Nguyen1, Nita Mishra2, Edward Lahiff2

1VNU University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, Vietnam; 2University College Cork, Ireland

In Vietnam, like other Asian countries, the main contributing factor to urbanization remains internal rural-urban migration. Despite government policies that promote urban-based industrialisation and rapid expansion of the service sector, rural-to-urban migrants constitute a marginalised and vulnerable group within urban spaces. Social services in Vietnam’s cities, including housing, education, health and welfare, are generally stressed and may not meet the needs of new arrivals. As a result, the majority of migrant workers in the informal economy hardly receive social welfare benefits and must take recourse to poor quality, informal housing, often without any tenure security in overcrowded settlements. Lack of education, appropriate skills or access to formal employment opportunities means that many migrants end up working informally in areas such as petty trading, construction, rubbish collection, domestic work, with inferior conditions compared to more established urban workers.

While official policy acknowledges the challenges presented by rural-urban migration , state agencies at national, provincial and city levels generally lack the capacity to respond to the needs of migrants in meaningful ways. Social protection has been extended to many groups in society in recent decades but does not yet provide adequate coverage for migrants working in informal sectors. As a result, the social and economic inclusion of migrants has not been very limited. In that context, a range of civil society organisations have emerged, many with the support of international donors and INGOs that are working with migrants and state agencies, that are working to address the needs of migrants and their families. Although civil society remains a contested concept in Vietnam, such organisations have been playing increasingly significant role and gaining considerable success. One such example is the M-net group of six organisations working together to help migrants receive better social welfare services and voice their opinions on political issues, with support from Oxfam Vietnam. Notable successes have been reported in the Mekong Migration Network, with links to similar organisations in Cambodia and Laos.

This paper provides a critical appraisal of the emergence and work of these organisations and the migrant networks they support. Based on available data from governmental documents and reports of international and local NGOs, along with a series of in-depth interviews among key informatns from relevant organizations, the paper seeks to answer two questions: What is the role of NGOs in mobilising migrant worker groups in Vietnam? and what strategies have been used to advance the interests of migrant workers in official policy reform processes? The results of this analysis are expected to throw new light on the evolution of civil society in the distinct socio-political context of Vietnam and on how the specific demands of rural-urban migrants can be advanced within the policy-making process.



The Role of Social Capital in Inclusion of Rural Migrants in Vietnam: A Case Study of Tan Trieu Commune, Thanh Tri District, Hanoi

Tuan Anh Nguyen1, Edward Lahiff2

1VNU, University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, Vietnam; 2University of College Cork, Ireland

Movement of people from agricultural to non-agricultural employment, and from rural to urban areas, is the dominant social and economic transformation observed in Vietnam today. This bring major challenges not only for policy makers, but also for individual migrants as they navigate unfamiliar social, economic and cultural surroundings.

Based on a series of in-depth interviews with migrants, property owner, local business operators and local officials in Tan Trieu commune, Thanh Tri district, Hanoi, Vietnam, this paper explores the ways in which migrants coming from different localities make use of their social capital in terms of social network, trust and reciprocity to build, maintain and improve their lives in Hanoi, Vietnam. This paper addresses three main points. First, it explores the role of migrant’s social capital in securing housing within this area. The paper shows that social network and trust is crucial for migrants finding houses to rent or share with others in this area. Second, concerning employment, migrants often make use of information or direct introductions from their relatives, friends or people coming from their home place to find and change their jobs, or to start their own small business. Third, faced with the challenges of day-to-day living and especially in times of hardship such as illness, migrants often depend on support from their relatives or people coming from the same homeland. Thus, social capital among migrants is a foundation for their mutual supports when they face difficulties in everyday life. These three issues not only demonstrate the importance of social capital or solidarity among migrants but also reveals the strategies of migrants, especially migrants coming from rural areas to integrate into city life in the context of rapid urbanization in Vietnam.



 
Contact and Legal Notice · Contact Address:
Privacy Statement · Conference: EADI ISS 2021
Conference Software - ConfTool Pro 2.6.142+TC
© 2001 - 2021 by Dr. H. Weinreich, Hamburg, Germany