An Efficient Method for Modeling the Magnetic Field Emission of a Wireless Power Transfer Coupler for EV's
1GeePs | Group of electrical engineering - Paris, CNRS, CentraleSupélec, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, Sorbonne Uni-versité, 3 & 11 rue Joliot-Curie, Plateau de Moulon 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette CEDEX, France; 2Institut VEDECOM | 23 bis Allée des Marronniers, 78000 Versailles
Recently, the number of electric vehicles (EVs) is increasing due to the declining of oil resources and rising of greenhouse gas emission. However, EVs have not received a wide acceptance by consumers due to the limitations of the stored energy and charging problems in batteries. The dynamic or in motion charging solution became a suitable choice to solve the battery related issues. Many researchers and vehicle manufacturers are working to develop an efficient charging system for EVs which are based on electromagnetic emissions to transfer power. These emissions must be evaluated in order not to cause harmful effects on their environment (humans, pets, electronic devices ...). This paper treats an efficient method for modeling electromagnetic emission in near field of a wireless power transfer coil used for charging electrical vehicles (EV’s), a model based on elementary magnetic dipoles is developed for the prediction of the radiated magnetic field. The determination of the model parameters is obtained by an optimization procedure and a matrix inversion and after a measurement phase in near field. This approach allows us to find equivalent sources with a small number of dipoles in a relatively small computing time.
Application of scale reduction of a wireless power transfer system for the evaluation of the magnetic field exposure.
1vedecom, France; 2ESIGELEC, IRSEEM, France
This paper proposes the use of scale reduction for wireless power transfer systems applied to electric vehicle. The scale reduction obeys
to certain rules that are deduced in this work and then applied for the evaluation of the magnetic induction for a scaled down prototype.
The aim is to reproduce the same magnetic field intensity as a real scale model and investigate its impact on the human body tissue.
Finite Element Method Based Design of an Octagonal Photonic Crystal Fiber Plasmonic Refractive Index Sensor using Graphene
1Varendra University, Rajshahi 6204, Bangladesh; 2Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology, Rajshahi 6204, Bangladesh; 3University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522, Australia; 4University of Technology Sydney, New South Wales 2007, Australia; 5University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia
This paper describes the design and analysis of a plasmonic refractive index (RI) sensor in a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) platform through which graphene is used to get the plasmonic behavior. The performance of the proposed sensor is evaluated numerically using the finite element method based simulation tool and in the MATLAB software environment. The analysis shows that the maximum amplitude sensitivity of 44,600 RIU-1 and 75,690 RIU-1 for the x- and y-polarized modes, respectively, gained by this design is the highest to date. The novelty of this work is the incorporation of graphene plasmonic with PCF, which has never been done previously and the maximum amplitude sensitivity. It is expected that the proposed PCF based plasmonic RI sensor can be a suitable candidate in different sensing applications.
A novel method to evaluate the Exposition Index for the Dynamic Wireless Power Transfer system
1Vedecom, France; 2ESIGELEC, IRSEEM, France
The Wireless Power Transfer System (WPTS) is currently used in many electric vehicles for static and for dynamic charging. This latter may be hazardous for the public surrounding the track, because of the high intensity magnetic fields generated by the high excitation current. The safety of such system must be assessed upstream, using numerical estimation. This paper presents a new numerical approach using an existing method to identify the safety range of a Dynamic Wireless Power Transfer system (DWPTS) while saving half of the time for the usual methods.
Electromagnetic Compatibility Analysis of an Induction Motor Drive with Integrated Power Converter
1Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX, USA; 2Electrical and Computer Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran; 3Department of Engineering, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX, USA
With the development of high-temperature wide-bandgap power semiconductors, such as SiC MOSFET and GaN HEMT, it becomes possible to integrate the power converter directly into motors. However, the strong magnetic field in the motor may cause interference with the operation of electronic components. In this paper, the electromagnetic compatibility of power converter integrated in an induction motor is investigated. The simulation shows that the leakage magnetic flux of end-winding will penetrate into the nearby area, and it will cause interference with the Hall-effect current sensors if the power converter is mounted in the space between the motor end cap and the end-winding.
An Improved Semi-Numerical IGBT Model for PETT Oscillation Induced EMI Source Prediction
1Institute of Electric engineering. Chinese Academy of Sciences; 2University of Chinese Academy of Sciences; 3Global Energy Interconnection Research Insitute
To analyze the plasma extraction transit time (PETT) oscillation induced electromagnetic interference (EMI) noise, this paper present an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) model with improved solution for the bipolar junction transistor (BJT) part of IGBT to account the depletion region current distribution which is associated with PETT oscillation. The basic drift diffusion model (DDM) equations are solved by using a converted boundary condition and a moving mesh method to make the model suitable for circuit simulation embedding with numerical stability. The model is shown to give good agreement with experimental waveforms, and accurately predicts the PETT oscillation frequency and occurrence conditions with different parasitic inductance and applied voltage.
Analytical Magnetic Shielding Calculation of a Slot on a Metal Plate
The University of Suwon, Korea, Republic of (South Korea)
This paper proposes an analytical formulation to calculate the magnetic near-ﬁeld shielding effectiveness (SE) of a metal plate with an electrically small slot at low-frequency range. Mutual inductances of two rectangular (square) loop antennas in the absence and presence of the metal plate with a slot are analytically derived. Then, the magnetic SE is obtained by the ratio of two analytical mutual inductances. For validation, the results obtained by the proposed method are compared with the numerical results of 3D full-wave simulation and good agreement is achieved.
Three-Dimensional Field-Flux Eigenmode Formulation for Periodic Graphene Structures
Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
We present a three-dimensional Field-Flux eigenmode Finite Element formulation, able to provide an accurate approximation of the propagation characteristics of periodic structures featuring graphene. The proposed formulation leads to a linear eigenmode problem, where the effective refractive index is the eigenvalue and the electric field intensity and magnetic flux density are the state variables, while graphene’s contribution is incorporated via a finite conductivity boundary condition. The formulation is spurious free and can provide accurate dispersion diagrams for an arbitrary propagation direction.
Study on the Distribution of Electromagnetic Field in the Hybrid Laying of UHVDC and EHVAC Transmission Lines
1Xi'an Jiaotong University, China, People's Republic of; 2State Grid Shaanxi Electric Power Research Institute, China, People's Republic of
The HVDC transmission line laid in the future will most likely face the problem of erection with AC transmission lines in the same corridor to solve the shortage of the land resources and enhance the power load. In this study, a strongly coupled calculation method, finite element iterative method (FEIM), for solving the electric field in the hybrid laying of ultra high voltage direct current (UHVDC) and extra high voltage alternating current (EHVAC) transmission lines is proposed. Furthermore, the magnetic field in the hybrid laying of UHVDC and EHVAC transmission lines is solved by FEM, and then the induced voltage in the DC wire is calculated based on the magnetic field calculation results. Finally, the minimum distance between EHVAC and UHVDC is obtained under hybrid laying mode, which provide theoretical basis for real hybrid transmission lines design.
Planewave response of planar multilayer structures with anisotropy and nonlocality
School of Electrical Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, China
We provide a numerical tool to analyze the plane wave response of a planar multilayer structure in the presence of anisotropy and spatial nonlocality. We find that the numerical instability can be avoid by cascading the generalized scattering matrices when lossy materials is present and when nonlocal effects are taken into account. Though small, in general, the nonlocal effects can be enhanced in multilayer structures, yielding a significant modified optical response, such as higher transmission characteristics. Furthermore, the inclusion of nonlocal effects may remove the non-reciprocity of the gyrotropic structures despite that they are nonreciprocal in the local regime. The proposed formalism can further be extended to handle dipole emission which is embedded in such structures.
Laser induced ultrasonic transducer and its application in Magneto-acousto-electrical tomography
Institute of Electrical Engineering Chinese Academy of Sciences, China, People's Republic of
Various types of ultrasound transducers have been developed and widely used in biomedical science and industrial testing applications. However, conventional ultrasound transducer is incapable for broad bandwidth ultrasound which provides high spatial resolution imaging. In addition, conventional ultrasound transducers are PZT transducers, which means that these transducers suffer from electromagnetic interference (EMI) in electronically harsh environments. In this study, a Laser induced ultrasonic transducer (LIUT) based on optoacoustic effect is proposed to demonstrate its capability for medical imaging of a gel phantoms. First, the multi-physical field coupling method of electromagnetic-solid-ultrasonic field is deduced, and the ultrasonic field characteristic of LIUT is simulated. And then the LIUT was fabrication by coating the carbon black(CB)-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS )based polymer composite on the substrate. The characteristics of sound field are verified by experiment and simulation. The amplitude and -6 dB frequency bandwidth of the generated ultrasound were measured to be 5 MPa and 20MHz, respectively. Finaly, the presented LIUT was applied for magneto-acousto-electrical tomography (MAET) based on ultrasound excitation.
FDTD Formulation Based on High-Order Surface Impedance Boundary Conditions for Lossy Multi-Conductor Transmission Lines
1Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Italy; 2State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an
A finite difference time domain (FDTD) formulation for a frequency dependent lossy multi-conductor transmission line (MTL) is derived. It is based on the introduction of partial (self and mutual) resistances and inductances of each conductor in the equivalent circuit of the MTL. The accuracy of the voltage and current updating equations are improved with the accurate representation of the partial internal impedances considering skin and proximity effects, computed by the boundary element method (BEM) enforcing high order surface impedance boundary conditions (SIBCs). The numerical validation of the proposed FDTD formulation is carried out for the case of a three-wire ribbon cable.
Imperfect EM Shielding by Thin Conducting Sheets with PEC and SIBC
1Technische Universität Wien, Austria; 2Silicon Austria Labs GmbH, Inffeldgasse 25F, A-8010 Graz
Electromagnetic compatibility of electronic based systems is increasingly gaining importance. The goal is to develop simulation tools, which allow the inclusion of electromagnetic compatibility aspects of electronic based systems. The different dimensions of the involved objects are a big challenge, for example ratios higher than 1:400,000 are common, leading to simplifications like assuming that the shielding is only a boundary condition. The impedance boundary condition is used twice, on the inside and outside of the shielding. A representative example is a small loop antenna located in a metallic box presented here. The antenna is a substitute for more involved emitters.
Fixed power algorithm for rigorous calculations of Kerr nonlinear properties of isotropic and anisotropic 2D nonlinear waveguides
1Aix-Marseille Université, France; 2Institut Fresnel CNRS
We illustrate a general approach valid for anisotropic 2D Kerr nonlinear plasmonic waveguides that overcomes the known limitations of the approaches developed for isotropic nonlinear waveguides. This numerical approach is based on the power-dependent change of the complex propagation constant. We study stationary solutions propagating in both isotropic and anisotropic 2D cross-section nonlinear plasmonic waveguides. We show that the figure of merit in the anisotropic case can become two times higher than the isotropic case. We show the importance of our solver in quantifying the third-order nonlinear Kerr-effect rather than relying on the linear properties which are commonly used in the literature. Moreover, based on realistic materials, we show that the figure of merit in the anisotropic case can become two times higher than the isotropic one.