Conference Agenda

Overview and details of the sessions of this conference. Please select a date or location to show only sessions at that day or location. Please select a single session for detailed view (with abstracts and downloads if available).

Please note that all times are shown in the time zone of the conference. The current conference time is: 7th July 2022, 16:23:11 CEST

 
 
Session Overview
Session
Session T2.4: Improving indoor environmental quality
Time:
Thursday, 02/Sept/2021:
10:30 - 12:00

Session Chair: Catherine Gorle, Stanford University
Session Chair: Massimo Palme, Universidad Católica del Norte
Location: Cityhall (Belfry) - Room 4

External Resource: Click here to join the livestream. Only registered participants have received the access code for the livestream.
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Presentations
10:30 - 10:48

Missing data imputation for diagnostic purposes in building system : application to an office setting

Houda Najeh, Stéphane Ploix

G-SCOP laboratory, University of Grenoble Alpes,France

Aim and Approach

(max 200 words)

In a building system, the diagnostic result is calculated from a set of tests ; each defined by a bunch of data, a behavioral constraint and a set of possible explanations in case of anomaly. To make a test, data are required from different sensors. However, missing data is a common issue in buildings. Because a detection tests relies on several variables and that all the data should be available along a given time horizon, performong tests could become an issue.

In the literature, many techniques have been proposed to impute missing data. However, detection tests could detect anomalies with usual types of imputation : it is indeed necessary that the imputed data don’t generate false alarms. It is all the more important for diagnosis from first principle approach where detection of anomalies has a strong impact on the diagnosis.

This paper discusses the issue of imputation for diagnostic purposes i.e generate data so that satisfy test constraints. The proposed imputation algorithm is based on satisfying genetic algorithm which search iteratively for imputed data satisfying behavioral while preserving as much as possible statistical properties.

The efficiency of the method is evaluated on measurements obtained from a real building: an office setting.

Scientific Innovation and Relevance

(max 200 words)

Imputing missing data for diagnosis in building is discussed in this paper. In a building system, the diagnostic result is calculated from a set of tests, each defined by a bunch of data, a behavioral constraint and a set of explanations in case of anomaly. The data gaps are the most important fault type in building. Throwing away data could lead to wrong diagnostic results due to the reduced sample size. So, rather than deleting the incomplete data sets, another approach is to impute the missing values.

At the begining, the limits of the imputation methods in the literature are highlithted. The innovation of this paper results in the fact that the detection tests could detect anomalies on the imputed data. The imputed data should not generate false alarms. The contribution is the imputation for diagnosis, ie under positive test constraints.

The proposed algorithm for imputation of missing data is a genetic algorithm based method that impute solution over the iterations.

It is based on four steps: random creation of the initial population, selection of individuals, mutations and crossover operations, computation of the selection criteria. The data are imputed with respect to behavioral constraint satisfaction and preservation of statistical properties.

Preliminary Results and Conclusions

(max 200 words)

- This paper tackles the issue of data gaps imputation for diagnoses purposes and proposes a new methodology based on genetic algorithm techniques for imputing missing data.

- Genetic Algorithm is used to improve the accuracy of the imputed solution over the iterations.

- Missing data are imputed under constraints of satisfaction of behavioral constraints of a test of detection and conservation of statistical properties for the time series of data after imputation process

- A real case study is used for validation

Main References

(max 200 words)

[1] Priya, R. D., & Kuppuswami, S. (2012). A genetic algorithm based approach for imputing missing discrete attribute values in databases. WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications, 9(6), 169-178.

[2] Al-Douri, Y., & Hamodi, H. (2017). Data imputing using genetic algorithms (GA): A case study of cost data for tunnel fans. In International Symposium on Mine Planning and Equipment Selection, Luleå, August 29-31 2017 (pp. 205-208). Luleå tekniska universitet.

[3] Patil, D. V., & Bichkar, R. S. (2010). Multiple imputation of missing data with genetic algorithm based techniques. IJCA Special Issue on" Evolutionary Computation for Optimization Techniques, 74-78.

[4] Shahzad, W., Rehman, Q., & Ahmed, E. (2017). Missing data imputation using genetic algorithm for supervised learning. International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, 8(3), 438-445.

[5] Najeh, H., Singh, M. P., Ploix, S., Chabir, K., & Abdelkrim, M. N. (2020). Automatic thresholding for sensor data gap detection using statistical approach. In Sustainability in Energy and Buildings (pp. 455-467). Springer, Singapore.



10:48 - 11:06

Approaches toward multi-aspect indoor-environmental performance indicators

Ardeshir Mahdavi, Christiane Berger

Department of Building Physics and Building Ecology, TU Wien

Aim and Approach

(max 200 words)

In earlier contributions [1, 2], a conceptual differentiation was suggested between three kinds of building performance simulation results. Some performance indicators, such as heating and cooling loads, are not directly relevant to buildings' indoor-environmental performance. A second class of indicators, such as task illuminance levels or room air CO2 concentrations are relevant to occupancy requirements (e.g., visual comfort, indoor air quality). But they do not have direct phenomenal correlates: People do not see illuminance or sense CO2 concentration. But these performance indicators may be linked to a third class of indicators that is not only relevant to human occupancy, but also correlates directly with phenomenal experience. Examples of such indicators are luminance of light sources, indoor air temperature, and sound pressure level. Certain characteristics of these last two categories are relevant to the present contribution. Specifically, indicators in these categories are frequently obtained for isolated aspects of indoor environment, i.e., thermal, visual, olfactory, or auditory. Aggregation of the values obtained for such isolated aspects into the value of a unified indoor-environmental quality indicator remains a challenge. The present treatment explores the potential of three strategic paths toward formulation and operationalization of multi-aspect indoor-environmental performance indicators.

Scientific Innovation and Relevance

(max 200 words)

Recent state of the art reviews [3, 4, 5] in the framework of IEA Annex 79 [6] have documented the paucity of in-depth knowledge concerning the cross-modal and combined effects of multiple indoor-environmental factors on building inhabitants' perception and behavior. A further insight emerges from an ongoing review [7] of national and international indoor-environmentally relevant multi-aspect codes, standards, and guidelines: The procedures employed in these resources to aggregate quality assessments in separate domains into a unified evaluation scale appear to be rather opaque, if not arbitrary. The results of these investigations underline the need for the formulation and pursuit of strategies to address the challenge of defining aggregate (multi-domain) indoor-environmental performance indicators. Advances is this area are directly relevant and beneficial toward more effective scenarios of performance simulation deployment for building design and operation support.

Preliminary Results and Conclusions

(max 200 words)

The present contribution outlines and exemplifies three strategic paths to address the aforementioned challenge, namely the development of multi-domain performance indicators. Illustrated briefly, these three paths are as follows: i) The relative weight of single-domain performance indicators toward the derivation of a unified indoor-environmental performance indicator is pursued following a Bayesian strategy involving iterative refinement of judgements elicited from expert panels. The weights matrix is structured in relation to a variety of building types and contexts; ii) Existing and future large-scale survey results from building users provide the information basis of the second path. Thereby, subjective single-domain evaluations of various aspects of sample environments are mapped into a unified formalism with calibrated coefficient for contributing single-domain variables; iii) The third path, which is at once the most rigorous and the most demanding, requires an empirically grounded understanding of the emergence of the unified field of perception from the vantage point of physiology, neuroscience, and cognitive psychology. The aforementioned reviews [3, 4, 5] reveal the inclusive state of the art in this area. The contribution is thus expected to provide a systematic map of necessary short-term, mid-term, and long-term efforts toward establishing computable cross-domain indoor-environmental performance indicators.

Main References

(max 200 words)

1. Mahdavi, A. 2004. Reflections on computational building models. Building and Environment. Volume 39, Issue 8, August 2004. ISSN 0360-1323. pp. 913 – 925.

2. Mahdavi, A. 2011. The Human Dimension of Building Performance Simulation. Driving better design through simulation (keynote). Proceedings of the 12th Conference of The International Building Performance Simulation Association, Sydney, Australia. ISBN: 978-0-646-56510-1; pp. K16 - K33.

3. Schweiker, M. et al. 2020. Review of multi‐domain approaches to indoor environmental perception and behaviour. Building and Environment. 176. 106804. doi: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2020.106804.

4. Mahdavi, A. et al. 2020a. Understanding multi-aspect indoor-environmental exposure situations: Past insights and future needs. The 16th Conference of the International Society of Indoor Air Quality & Climate (Indoor Air 2020) COEX, Seoul, Korea (to be published).

5. Mahdavi, A. 2020b. Explanatory stories of human perception and behavior in buildings. Building and Environment, 168; 106498.

6. IEA EBC Annex 79. https://annex79.iea-ebc.org/.

7. Mahdavi, A. et al. 2020b. Necessary conditions for multi-domain indoor environmental quality standards (to be published).



11:06 - 11:24

Comparison of overheating risk in nearly zero energy dwelling based on three different overheating calculation methods

Shady Attia1, Ramin Rahif1, Abdulrahman Fani1, Mohamed Amer2

1Univeristé de Liège, Belgium; 2Renowatt, Liege, Belgium

Aim and Approach

(max 200 words)

This study aims to investigate the vulnerability of dwellings to overheating risk in Belgium. The objectives consist of establishing an energy simulation model of a verified case study within the Walloon Region and assessing its overheating risk based on the three overheating indicators. A five years monitored nearly zero energy house is used as a reference building. A validated building performance simulation model is created and validated in EnegryPlus. By exploring a large body of the literature and standards, we decided to select three overheating assessment methods. The three overheating risk indicators comprise 1)the Belgian EPBD overheating indicator, 2) the Passive House overheating indicator, and 3) the ambient warmness degree and indoor overheating degree indicators developed by Hamdy et al. (2017). Finally, the potential of ventilative cooling is assessed in the mitigation of overheating risk. The abovementioned method is applied to a lightweight single-family nearly zero energy with a total surface area of 174 m2 located in Eupen, Belgium.

Scientific Innovation and Relevance

(max 200 words)

This study applies state-of-the-art method for overheating assessment of new timber construction in Belgium. The innovation lies in the comparative approach that provides an accurate evaluation for a highly insulated and airtight building. The study combines in-situ measurements of building thermo-physical characteristics and energy use monitoring with building performance simulation.

Our research contributes to overheating evaluation methods in residential buildings. The research methodology used in this research is part of the IEA Annex 80 activities on resilient cooling for buildings. The method of Hamdy et al. (2017) is based on EN 16798 Part 1 and 2. It runs an aggregated overheating value every time step based on the operative temperature, taking into account the solar radiation and thermal mass effects. The outcomes can be used to assess the cooling systems’ performance and effectiveness of passive adaptation measures in a changing climate. Overall, this paper provides an essential basis to improve indoor thermal conditions and climate change resilient design of buildings, which are within the scope of BS 2021 conference.

Preliminary Results and Conclusions

(max 200 words)

Results confirm a 216% difference in the overheated hours between the EPBD method and the used method of Hamdy et al. 2017. As an additional contribution of the study relates to ventilative cooling, which is assessed within the simulation model, proving an 82% potential as a mitigation strategy.

The results of the proposed study emphasize the need to improve the current legislative framework of the Walloon Region by adopting the set of long-term thermal discomfort indicators that allow the classification of the building regarding future projections, and the necessity of adapting dynamic calculations instead of static based estimation.

To conclude, this research gives an insight into whether nearly zero energy timber buildings are able to suppress the increase in average outdoor temperature in future climates. It also reveals the potential of ventilative cooling as a mitigation strategy and predicts to what extend its potential will decrease as global warming increases.

Main References

(max 200 words)

Butcher, K., and Craig, B. “Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers,” Environ. Des. CIBSE Guide Eighth Ed. Ed CIBSE Guide Chart. Inst. Build. Serv. Eng. Lond., 2015.

Carlucci, S., & Pagliano, L. (2012). A review of indices for the long-term evaluation of the general thermal comfort conditions in buildings. Energy and Buildings, 53, 194-205.

Carlucci, S., Bai, L., de Dear, R., & Yang, L. (2018). Review of adaptive thermal comfort models in built environmental regulatory documents. Building and Environment, 137, 73-89.

CEN, EN 16798-1: Energy performance of buildings–ventilation for buildings–Part 1: Brussels, 2019.

Goethals, K., Coppieters, L., Delghust, M., & Janssens, A. (2013). Evaluation of the quasi-steady-state overheating indicator for passive houses. In 11th REHVA World Congress. Society of Environmental Engineering.

Hamdy, M., Carlucci, S., Hoes, P. J., & Hensen, J. L. (2017). The impact of climate change on the overheating risk in dwellings—A Dutch case study. Building and Environment, 122, 307-323.

Khovalyg, D., Kazanci, O. B., Halvorsen, H., Gundlach, I., Bahnfleth, W. P., Toftum, J., & Olesen, B. W. (2020). Critical review of standards for indoor thermal environment and air quality. Energy and Buildings, 109819.



11:24 - 11:42

Influence of zoned use and occupancy on Daylight Autonomy in high-rise mass housing in Colombia

Alejandra Jiménez Gómez, Alejandro Naranjo Ortiz, Elizabeth Parra Correa, Lucas Arango Díaz, Jorge Hernán Salazar Trujillo

Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Colombia

Aim and Approach

(max 200 words)

The objective of this research focuses on evaluating the autonomy of natural light (DA) in a low-budget housing space in Colombia, based on the considerations of its use and occupation. Physic-spatial characteristics of various dwellings were defined to carry out computational simulations of natural light autonomy (DA) through the Grasshopper plug-in for Rhino. Consider the next parameters: a) window/wall ratio, b) type of glass, c) position of the window and d) depth of balconies. Besides, it included a proposal for evaluating the autonomy of natural light (DA) in domestic spaces in the Colombian tropics according to the combined light output of different controlled areas in the same environment, as a result of the various visual tasks carried out in it.

Scientific Innovation and Relevance

(max 200 words)

In the Colombian tropics, in low-budget housing, it is common for the social zone to be used as a workspace. This particularity calls for studies of the light output of this type of space. The novelty and relevance of this work focus on evaluating the light performance of low-budget homes in the Colombian tropics, as well as on the proposal of a method to lightly evaluate spaces based on the division into zones. However, based on the singularity of use and occupation of these homes, it is decided to propose a different use of the dynamic metrics given the context and assuming that it is a benefit for energy consumption, contrary to a single assessment for the entire space in which due to the nature of the space under study would cast a negative in terms of its lighting since it is based on the hypothesis that it is more relevant to make evaluations by zones in each space than to assess the entire space. In this way, it would be possible to identify, for this type of space, which areas are more suitable according to the visual task.

Preliminary Results and Conclusions

(max 200 words)

The preliminary results show that the valuation of space from the areas that compose it allows us to identify how many opportunities for grouping or occupation there are and what tasks can be carried out to achieve a higher light output. It is believed that in tropical conditions with high daytime variability of solar radiation conditions it is desirable to use the standard metrics differently and hope to perhaps define additional metrics. The proposed method demonstrates potential, as it demonstrates the importance of zoning spaces according to their use and occupation, in addition to the good use and exploitation of the elements that make up the facade to obtain an adequate entrance and distribution of natural light in the space.

Main References

(max 200 words)

Bin Dalmouk, M., & Al-Sallal, K. A. (2020). Modeling Daylight in Adjacent Spaces of the Courtyard under Clear Sky Conditions. Proceedings of Building Simulation 2019: 16th Conference of IBPSA, 16, 990–995. https://doi.org/10.26868/25222708.2019.210307

Elzeyadi, I. M. K., & Batool, A. (2017). Veiled Facades: Impacts of Patterned-Mass Shades on Building Energy Savings, Daylighting Autonomy, and Glare Management in Three Different Climate Zones Solar screens environmental performance. October. https://doi.org/10.1016/0360-1315(82)90012-4

Fela, R. F., Utami, S. S., Mangkuto, R. A., Suroso, D. J., & Mada, G. (2019). The Effects of Orientation , Window Size , and Lighting Control to Climate-Based Daylight Performance and Lighting Energy Demand on Buildings in Tropical Area Department of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics , Faculty of Engineering , Universitas. 1075–1082.

Potočnik, J., & Košir, M. (2020). Influence of commercial glazing and wall colours on the resulting non-visual daylight conditions of an office. Building and Environment, 171(December 2019). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2019.106627



11:42 - 12:00

Assessing the current and future risk of overheating in London’s care homes: The effect of passive ventilation

Ioanna Tsoulou1, Nishesh Jain1, Eleni Oikonomou1, Giorgos Petrou1, Alastair Howard2, Rajat Gupta2, Anna Mavrogianni1, Ai Milojevic3, Paul Wilkinson3, Michael Davies1

1University College London, United Kingdom; 2Oxford Brookes University, United Kingdom; 3London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, United Kingdom

Aim and Approach

(max 200 words)

Climate change increases the likelihood of warmer summers and heat waves with adverse effects on thermal comfort and human health [1]. Older people and those who are physically frail are more vulnerable to heat, [3], including care home residents. The World Health Organization projects that heat-related morbidity and mortality will increase appreciably between 2030 and 2050 [6]. However, the heat risks to older people and how those risks may be reduced by building adaptations have not been quantified [2].

In this paper, we present findings from a study of thermal environments in an old care home and a modern care home in London, UK, using empirical observations and building temperature simulations. Indoor temperature and relative humidity data were obtained through continuous monitoring during the summer of 2019 and used to calibrate thermal simulations (EnergyPlus V8.9 via the DesignBuilder Graphical user Interface) of the indoor environment with and without passive cooling measures such as shading and natural ventilation.

Scientific Innovation and Relevance

(max 200 words)

Our research represents a novel method to evaluate heat-related risks to health in care settings under a representative set of climate change scenarios. We combine temperature and humidity measurements into a heat index as an indicator of thermal (dis)comfort and heat stress [4, 5] to supplement dry bulb temperature data. The results of our thermal models add to evidence on the effect of passive ventilation in care homes with contrasting building characteristics. Coupled with perspectives from public health officials, care home practitioners and stakeholders involved in built-environment preparedness for vulnerable groups, the research will help inform public health guidance on protection against heat risks in care homes. It will also be relevant to building standards and guidelines with respect to the effect of low-energy and easy-to-implement building adaptations in reducing the risk of overheating.

Preliminary Results and Conclusions

(max 200 words)

Our work on thermal modeling utilized CIBSE’s test reference year (TRY) and design summer year (DSY1) weather files based on UK Climate Projections 2009 (UKCP09) and under the high emissions, 50% percentile scenario. Preliminary results showed that the mean daily indoor heat index in the two case study care homes is likely to increase by 2 ˚C by the 2050s and by 4 ˚C by the 2080s. Furthermore, they suggest that night-time window opening has a high impact in reducing heat index in both care home settings. Yet, the overall effectiveness of shading and passive ventilation in reducing overheating was highly varied, depending on the age of care home (and related insulation/heat loss), floor number, orientation, duration and time of day of window opening. The knowledge gained from the study will help care providers and relevant stakeholders from the built environment and policy development in adapting old and modern care homes for a warming climate.

Main References

(max 200 words)

1. IPCC. (2014). Climate change 2014: Synthesis report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. . In R. K. P. a. L. A. Meyer (Ed.). Geneva, Switzerland. from https://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/syr/

2. Kingsborough, A., Jenkins, K., & Hall, J. W. (2017). Development and appraisal of long-term adaptation pathways for managing heat-risk in London. Climate Risk Management, 16, 73-92.

3. Kovats, R. S., & Hajat, S. (2008). Heat stress and public health: a critical review. Annu. Rev. Public Health, 29, 41-55.

4. Quinn, A., Tamerius, J. D., Perzanowski, M., Jacobson, J. S., Goldstein, I., Acosta, L., & Shaman, J. (2014). Predicting indoor heat exposure risk during extreme heat events. Science of the total environment, 490, 686-693.

5. Tsoulou, I., Andrews, C. J., He, R., Mainelis, G., & Senick, J. (2020). Summertime thermal conditions and senior resident behaviors in public housing: A case study in Elizabeth, NJ, USA. Building and Environment, 168, 106411.

6. World Health Organization. (2014). Quantitative risk assessment of the effects of climate change on selected causes of death, 2030s and 2050s.