Conference Agenda

Overview and details of the sessions of this conference. Please select a date or location to show only sessions at that day or location. Please select a single session for detailed view (with abstracts and downloads if available).

Please note that all times are shown in the time zone of the conference. The current conference time is: 17th May 2022, 06:42:28 CEST

 
 
Session Overview
Session
Session W1.8 (Online Track): Buildings paving the way for the energy transition
Time:
Wednesday, 01/Sept/2021:
10:30 - 12:00

Session Chair: Yoshiyuki Shimoda, Osaka University
Location: Virtual Meeting Room 2

External Resource: Click here to join the Zoom Meeting
Show help for 'Increase or decrease the abstract text size'
Presentations
10:30 - 10:48

Projecting impacts of uncertain climate change on future energy demand

Sandhya Patidar, David Jenkins, Andrew Peacock

Heriot-Watt University, United Kingdom

Aim and Approach

(max 200 words)

Energy demand in future is very likely to be impacted by various uncertain changes occurring in our society, such as technological growth, user behaviour, government policy, industrial strategies and climate change [1]. Climate change is one of the key factors effecting the future energy demand, e.g., warming climate could influence winter heating demand and/or summer air-conditioning demand [2]. This paper aims to develop a hybrid system of novel data-driven approaches for conducting an in-depth analysis (evaluating the magnitude) of the impacts of climate change and associated uncertainty on energy demand at both residential and community-level. The new approach is calibrated at a level of individual building demand profile to simulate future-morphed synthetic profiles that can be scaled up to realise, and visualised, the impact in aggregated profiles of communities in a manner that could reflect how individual dwelling profiles might respond to various future scenarios, and how this might be quantified at a regional, community level.

Scientific Innovation and Relevance

(max 200 words)

To attain optimum efficiency, the underpinning modelling approaches will adopt a hybrid structure that will integrate carefully selected cutting-edge statistical, mathematical and machine learning based data processing/modelling approaches. The innovative design of hybrid system involves statistical time-series decomposition technique (STL: A Seasonal –Trend Decomposition procedure based on Loess processes [3]) for extracting trend, seasonal and random components from energy demand and corresponding climatic (e.g. temperature) time-series. The seasonal components of demand and climatic series are processed using wavelet power spectrum analysis. Application of wavelet analysis is strategically intended for identifying and extracting highly significant periodic signals (features) from the seasonal components. The periodic features drawn from the climatic and demand series are used to calibrate a ‘Climate module’ based on widely applied machine learning algorithm Support Vector Regression (SVR) [4]. The climate module within the hybrid system is designed for projecting the impacts of seasonal/periodic climatic feature on the corresponding seasonal features in demand series. Finally, a demand synthesis module, referred to as HMM-GP [5], that involves a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) coupled with an extreme-value distribution, Generalised Pareto (GP), is integrated within the hybrid system for generating future morphed synthetic demand profiles.

Preliminary Results and Conclusions

(max 200 words)

To demonstrate the potentials of the proposed hybrid system, a small community village, Fintry based in Stirlingshire (Central Scotland), is selected [6]. For the present study electricity demand data available across 115 participating households in the community of (~350 households) at 15- and 30-minute resolution are used. The hybrid system is applied to a small selection of sample buildings from the case-study community to generate several statistically synchronous future-morphed synthetic demand series. These future-morphed simulated series are aggregated to generate community-level demand profiles for future climate change scenarios. A k-mean clustering approach (using statistical mean/median of total demand as key features) is applied to group the buildings in the community. Selection of the sample is weighted proportionally to the size of the clusters, for both sampling and aggregation purpose, to ensure the outputs represent adequate diversity across the community. Climate projection from the UKCP18 database [7] is utilised within the climatic module to generate climate-informed demand series and to explore climatic uncertainty in future energy demand at community-level. The results are thoroughly analysed and validated using appropriate statistical measures, such as box plots, probability density distribution, percentile distribution and autocorrelation function.

Main References

(max 200 words)

[1] “Updated energy and emissions projections,” HM Government, 2017.

[2] T. Rogers-Hyden, F. Hatton and I. Lorenzoni, “‘Energy security’ and ‘climate change’: Constructing UK energy discursive realities,” Global Environmental Change, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 134-142, 2011.

[3] R. B. Cleveland, W. S. Cleveland, J. E. McRae and I. Terpenning, “STL: A Seasonal-Trend Decomposition Procedure Based on Loess,” Journal of Official Statistics, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 3-73, 1990.

[4] M. Awad and R. Khanna, “Support Vector Regression,” in Efficient Learning Machines, Berkeley, CA, Springer, Apress, 2015, pp. 67-80.

[5] S. Patidar, D. P. Jenkins, A. Peacock and P. Mccallum, “Time Series Decomposition Approach for Simulating Electricity Demand Profile,” in Building Simulation 2019, 16th IBPSA International International Conference, Rome, Italy, 2019.

[6] J. Smith, “http://smartfintry.org.uk/about-smart-fintry/resources/,” Smart Fintry, 13 04 2018. [Online]. Available: http://smartfintry.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/Smart-Fintry-Innovation-Report-final.pdf. [Accessed 07 2020].

[7] “UK Climate Projections (UKCP18),” Met Office Hadley Centre Climate Programme, UK, 2018.



10:48 - 11:06

Analysis of the energy performance of a new ventilated brick wall: behaviour of real scale prototype under different ventilation configuration and weather conditions

Costanza Vittoria Fiorini1, Domenico Palladino2, Cinzia Buratti3

1CIRIAF, University of Perugia, Via G. Duranti 63, 06125 Perugia, Italy; 2ENEA, Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development of Engineering, Via Anguillarese, 301, 00123 Rome, Italy; 3Department of Engineering, University of Perugia, Via G.Duranti 67, 06125 Perugia, Italy

Aim and Approach

(max 200 words)

Ventilated façade allows to reduce thermal loads during the cooling period.

This work aims to assess the thermal behavior of a ventilated wall with high thermal inertia, made of local construction materials.

According to results obtained at laboratory scale, a real prototype of the ventilated façade was built as a perimeter wall of a gym.

Openings, 250x25 mm2/m of horizontal length, are placed at the bottom and at the top of the wall. Its height, 8.50m, allows to increase the flow rate within the air gap, thanks to the stack-effect.

The southern façade is equipped to monitor air and surface temperature, air velocity, heat flux.

Three experimental campaigns were carried out in winter and summer period with close, partially close, and open holes, with the following aims: comparing non-ventilated, partially ventilated, and ventilated configuration; evaluating the height influence on the temperatures within the ventilation gap and highlighting the potential phase displacement between those temperatures and the outdoor air temperature; monitoring the temperature and air velocity fields in the air gap and inside/outside, in order to evaluate the energy performance of the ventilated wall during two years of monitoring; using experimental results to implement and validate a 3D-CFD model.

Scientific Innovation and Relevance

(max 200 words)

Given the impossibility of correctly assessing the thermal transmittance of this type of wall through the methodology provided by the current reference legislation, the research is aimed at evaluating the in-situ behavior of a real scale prototype, taking into account how the number and position of the openings affect its performance. Openings configuration was first optimized on a prototype of masonry ventilated wall built at laboratory scale and the experimental data monitored on it allowed the validation of a 3D CFD simulation model.Implementation and validation of a new 3D CFD model with experimental results at real scale (indoor/ outdoor air temperature, surface and air-gap temperature) will allow to predict the behaviour of the wall in different periods of the year and in different climate conditions, in order to establish the real benefit of the ventilation. Results related to conventional wall and innovative brick ventilated wall, in terms of energy demand, will be compared both in different cities and climatic conditions. Also in suggesting a ventilated wall made by traditional and local materials lies the peculiarity of this purpose: such a solution guarantees thermal comfort maintaining the constructive tradition (of Umbria region), both for new buildings and for refurbishment interventions.

Preliminary Results and Conclusions

(max 200 words)

Non-ventilated, partially-ventilated and ventilated wall in winter case inside the cavity have surface temperatures and air temperature curves overlapping.

For partially-ventilated configuration cavity temperatures never reach the external peaks, departing from them of about 3°C, allowing heat losses reduction during the heating hours.

Ventilation configurations affect air temperature profiles in the cavity, with an almost linear trend as the height increases, according to stack-effect. For the ventilated configuration in the coldest hours the temperature is higher in the upper part of the wall, in the warmest at 3.55m and 6.5m. At the bottom (2.55m) the lowest temperatures are generally recorded.

In summer conditions inside the cavity the air temperature deviates from the surface ones up to 5°C, following the course of the external temperature in a smaller range (15°C and 20°C respectively), especially at lower temperatures.

Outdoor/indoor air temperatures phase displacement is 1.30 h in the night period and 3 h in the day period. During the daytime the counter-wall maintain low surface temperatures on the inner wall of the cavity: up to 4.5ºC lower than the external.

Summer difference between average flow values for ventilated and partially-ventilated wall is 8 W/m2: the first one guarantees optimal disposal.

Main References

(max 200 words)

[1] Buratti, C., Palladino, D., Moretti, E., Di Palma, R., 2018. Development and optimization of a new ventilated brick wall: CFD analysis and experimental validation. Energy Build. 168, 284–297.

[2] Gagliano, A., Aneli, S., 2020. Analysis of the energy performance of an Opaque Ventilated Façade under winter and summer weather conditions. Solar Energy 205, 531-544.

[3] Liu, L., Yu, Z., Zhang, H., 2017. Simulation study of an innovative ventilated facade utilizing indoor exhaust air. In: International Conference on Improving Residential Energy Efficiency, IREE 2017.

[4] C. Marinoscia , G. Semprinia , G.L. Morini , Experimental analysis of the summer thermal performances of a naturally ventilated rainscreen façade building, En- ergy Build. 72 (2014) 280–287 .

[5] S. Saadon , L. Gaillard , S. Giroux-Julien , C. Ménézo , Simulation study of a naturally-ventilated building integrated photovoltaic/thermal (BIPV/T) envelope, Renew. Energy 87 (2016) 517–531 .

[6] C. Buratti , D. Palladino , E. Moretti , Prediction of indoor conditions and thermal comfort using CFD simulations: a case study based on experimental data, Energy Procedia 126 (2017) 115–122 .



11:06 - 11:24

Development of an urban sewage state prediction model and case studies for the evaluation of sewage heat utilization potential

Weian Chen1, Shohei Miyata2, Yasunori Akashi2

1National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 2University of Tokyo, Japan

Aim and Approach

(max 200 words)

Sewage heat is a stable heat source for heating and hot water supply through the heat pump due to its small temperature fluctuation affected by season [1]. The utilization of sewage heat is a novel issue within the field of the development of renewable energy, especially the technique of recovering the heat through pipelines [2–5] in a regional scale to maximize heat reutilization by buildings [2,6]. However, the features and utilization potential of sewage heat have not been completely explored so far [7,8]. Therefore, there is still the possibility to draw up better sewage heat utilization plans and strategies to efficiently exploit the heat in urban areas, owing to its high penetration rate of the sewer system, and eventually reduce the environmental load.

This study aims at suggesting an estimation methodology and judging criteria based on an urban sewage state prediction model to evaluate the sewage heat utilization potential in an urban area and recommended utilization objects. In this paper, the evaluation methodology is introduced through case studies that applied the model to an actual area for evaluating the regional sewage heat utilization potential and clarifying which building is proper to utilize the sewage heat.

Scientific Innovation and Relevance

(max 200 words)

An urban sewage state prediction model is proposed in the study, which can predict the sewage state and conduct the regional simulation for evaluating the sewage heat utilization potential to make the regional optimal utilization of sewage heat. Specifically, because the model can be applied to the areas as long as certain statistical databases (original water consumption unit, hot and tap water consumption unit, etc.) and GIS data (building and pipe information) are prepared, the measurement data of sewage flow rate and temperature are not essential in this model; therefore, the estimation method can be adapted to not only existed areas but new areas which are still under planning and drawing up the proper regional energy utilization plan.

This model can simulate the entire circulation from the energy supply side to the demand side, which including sewage physical model and sewage heat utilization system model. The two models were both established from the perspective of the features of heat rejection and heat demand of different building types. Comprehensively, it is expected to apply the model to discuss sewage heat utilization potential in an urban scale; moreover, the relationship between building spatial distribution and their energy consumption can also be clarified.

Preliminary Results and Conclusions

(max 200 words)

The application of this model is first applied to an actual urban area to simulate the comprehensive utilization potential under different utilization rates. Specifically, without considering the particular strategies, the model is attempted to apply to an entire area for confirming its feasibility at the initial step, and clarified the approximate regional sewage heat utilization potential. Regarding the result, while the penetration rate of sewage heat utilization system is 80 %, the regional sewage heat utilization potential can achieve the greatest effect for about 10.69%. It shows that there is an abundant amount of sewage heat existed in the urban area that can be broadly utilized by more buildings. However, there is still a limitation that excessive utilization may lead to the worse effect; For instance, when the penetration rate is 100%, the utilization potential is 10.38%, which is lower than the result of 80%.

Secondly, from the practical view, we focus on specific buildings to compare which objective building is recommended to utilize the sewage heat in priority according to its better energy-saving effect and higher performance of sewage heat utilization system. Briefly, the relationship between different building location and their energy consumption, heat pump COP are analyzed.

Main References

(max 200 words)

[1] Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport W management department SD. Sewage heat utilization manual. 2015.

[2] Ichinose T. et al., Regional feasibility study on district sewage heat supply in Tokyo with geographic information system. Sustain Cities Soc 2017;32:235–46.

[3] Culha O. et al., Heat exchanger applications in wastewater source heat pumps for buildings: A key review. Energy Build 2015;104:215–32.

[4] Dürrenmatt DJ, Wanner O. Simulation of the wastewater temperature in sewers with TEMPEST. Water Sci Technol 2008;57:1809–15.

[5] Cui L. et al., Study of sewage heat utilization and heat interchange system that utilizes a network of sewer lines in urban areas (part 14 study of sewage heat amount available). vol. 10, 2014.

[6] Zhang C. et al., Design generalization of urban sewage source heat pump heating and air conditioning engineering. Proc - 3rd Int Conf Meas Technol Mechatronics Autom ICMTMA 2011 2011;1:926–9.

[7] MIKE M. et al., The Evaluation of Sewage Temperature and Flow Rate for Estimating Sewage Temperature and Flow Rate in Sewer Line. Trans Soc Heating, Air-Conditioning Sanit Eng Japan 2014;39:11–21.

[8] Cipolla SS. et al., Heat recovery from urban wastewater: Analysis of the variability of flow rate and temperature. Energy Build 2014;69:122–30.



11:24 - 11:42

Investigating the control strategies for Breathing Walls during summer: a dynamic simulation study

Andrea Alongi, Adriana Angelotti, Livio Mazzarella

Politecnico di Milano, Italy

Aim and Approach

(max 200 words)

The paper aims to study different strategies for the optimal operation of Breathing Walls during summer. The investigation is carried out by performing dynamic simulations on a case study. To this purpose, a transient Finite-Difference numerical model for Breathing Wall components, previously developed in Matlab and validated by the Authors in [1], is coupled with TRNSYS. The case study consists in an office room located in Milan, Italy, provided with Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation and with an air permeable wall.

Scientific Innovation and Relevance

(max 200 words)

The best operation strategy for Breathing Walls in heating dominated climates is almost assessed: it consists in forcing the ventilation air across the permeable walls and roof in order to pre-heat it. Conversely, the optimal use of Breathing Walls in cooling conditions still needs to be explored: some Authors suggested the so-called Exhaust Air Insulation mode [2], namely forcing exhaust air from the indoor environment across the Breathing Walls to reduce envelope heat gains, some others proposed coupling with night free cooling [3]. In addition, pre-cooling of the ventilation air by flowing across the Breathing Walls may be considered. Therefore, the scientific relevance of the paper consists in clarifying the best summer use of this technology in the given context and proposing a control strategy for the airflow direction.

Moreover, the study features the integration of a model specifically developed for Breathing Wall components with an existing BES tool (TRNSYS), which has never been done before. This allows to perform a comprehensive building simulation, where the Breathing Wall can properly be simulated at the same time as a building envelope component and as a part of the mechanical ventilation system.

Preliminary Results and Conclusions

(max 200 words)

Preliminary results of the simulations show that the best operation strategy depends on the characteristics of the room cooling load, namely the relative importance of ventilation load compared to transmission load. Moreover, a key parameter that should be firstly evaluated is the heat recovery efficiency of the Breathing Wall, to be compared with the efficiency of the heat recovery exchanger in case present.

Main References

(max 200 words)

[1] Alongi A, Angelotti A, Mazzarella L. A numerical model to simulate the dynamic performance of Breathing Walls, submitted to: Journal of Building Performance Simulation.

[2] Wang J., Du Q., Zhang C., Xu X., Gang W. (2018). Mechanism and preliminary performance analysis of exhaust air insulation for building envelope wall. Energy & Buildings (173) 516-529.

[3] Ascione F, Bianco N and De Stasio C. Dynamic insulation of the building envelope: numerical modelling under transient conditions and coupling with nocturnal free cooling. Appl Therm Eng 2015; 84: 1–14.



11:42 - 12:00

An evaluation of the proposed framework to introduce a smart readiness indicator for buildings

Vasiliki Varsami, Esfand Burman

Institute for Environmental Design and Engineering, University College London (UCL), United Kingdom

Aim and Approach

(max 200 words)

The Energy Performance of Buildings Directive was amended in 2018. A key objective was to promote the development of smart buildings since they were considered key enablers for future energy grids and systems. In this revision, the Directive called for the development of a new Smart Readiness Indicator (SRI) for buildings. The indicator is expected to provide a common framework across Europe, which evaluates the capacity of a building to use information and communication technologies in order to adapt to the needs of the occupants and the grid.

Although the scheme is not finalised, researchers and industry practitioners have already raised many questions about the methodology and the fair application of the scheme across all European Member States.

This paper reviews the proposed smart-readiness framework and assessment methods. Additionally, data from two existing non-residential buildings have been used to investigate the impact of the simplified and detailed methodologies defined for SRI on the final rating. Through this research and application of the scheme, the study aims to evaluate the strengths and improvement opportunities of the SRI framework and its role on enhancing building performance.

Scientific Innovation and Relevance

(max 200 words)

An ongoing second technical study is finalising the newly proposed framework that is expected to measure the capability of buildings to respond efficiently to the external environment and the demand of the occupants. The scheme has the potential to offer multiple benefits, from improving occupants’ well-being to promoting interconnected building communities and smart grids. Moreover, smart buildings can be key enablers for Europe to meet its Paris Agreement goal and keep in line with UN Sustainable Development Goals.

However, an indicator that measures capability can fail to translate into real performance. This could send a wrong message to end users reminiscent of the problem of energy performance gap and the credibility issue facing energy performance certificates. The two separate methodologies that exist may also lead to inconsistent certifications.

Therefore, the study aims to identify the potential issues that may rise up during the introduction of the indicator to the industry and can hinder the success of the scheme as well as improvement opportunities. By doing so, the paper can inform the process of continuous improvement of the scheme and demonstrate how this framework could be used to improve energy efficiency, energy flexibility and building user comfort.

Preliminary Results and Conclusions

(max 200 words)

Two large-scale, public buildings have been chosen as case studies. Both buildings have been designed with innovative, energy-efficient systems but have different environmental approaches and energy needs.

After calculating their smart readiness indicator score using both the simplified and detailed proposed methodology, the results have shown an approximate 10% difference between the two methods. Regarding energy performance, no correlation between the smart readiness results and energy performance of the case studies has been identified. Subsequently, the weighted factors where adjusted according to simulation results to demonstrate how the assessment can account for the building type and climate.

The original scores were compared with results from the literature and the beta testing process of SRI. Although both buildings have been constructed in the past five years, their SRI scores are close to the mean value for non-residential buildings. In particular, of the three key functionalities that smart readiness assesses, namely, energy efficiency, energy flexibility, and response to user needs, both cases scored very low (around 18%) on energy/grid flexibility. By having such a strong focus on demand control and grid integration, the scheme has the potential to promote grid flexibility in buildings and pave the way for future electricity markets.

Main References

(max 200 words)

European Commission, (2020). Discussion document – preparation of the delegated act of the smart readiness indicator. In: Meeting of the Expert Group on the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive. Brussels.

Janhunen, E., Pulkka, L., Säynäjoki, A. and Junnila, S., 2019. Applicability of the Smart Readiness Indicator for Cold Climate Countries. Buildings, 9(4), p.102.

Kurnitski, J. & Hogeling, J. (2018) Smart Readiness Indicator (SRI) for buildings not so smart as expected. REHVA Journal. (August 2018), 4.

Märzinger, T. and Österreicher, D., 2019. Supporting the Smart Readiness Indicator—A Methodology to Integrate A Quantitative Assessment of the Load Shifting Potential of Smart Buildings. Energies, 12(10).

Smartreadinessindicator.eu. (2020). Smart Readiness Indicator for Buildings. [online]

Vigna, I., Pernetti, R., Pernigotto, G. and Gasparella, A., 2020. Analysis of the Building Smart Readiness Indicator Calculation: A Comparative Case-Study with Two Panels of Experts. Energies, 13(11), p.2796.

Verbeke, S., Aerts, D., Rynders, G., Ma, Y. and Waide, P., (2020). 3rd Interim Report of the 2nd Technical Support Study on the Smart Readiness Indicator for Buildings. Brussels: VITO NV.



 
Contact and Legal Notice · Contact Address:
Privacy Statement · Conference: Building Simulation 2021
Conference Software - ConfTool Pro 2.6.143+TC
© 2001–2022 by Dr. H. Weinreich, Hamburg, Germany