Conference Agenda

Overview and details of the sessions of this conference. Please select a date or location to show only sessions at that day or location. Please select a single session for detailed view (with abstracts and downloads if available).

Please note that all times are shown in the time zone of the conference. The current conference time is: 17th May 2022, 06:21:11 CEST

 
 
Session Overview
Session
Session F2.3: Buildings paving the way for the energy transition
Time:
Friday, 03/Sept/2021:
10:30 - 12:00

Session Chair: Tarek Rakha, Georgia Institute of Technology
Session Chair: Yasuyuki Shiraishi, The University of Kitakyushu
Location: Cityhall (Belfry) - Room 3

External Resource: Click here to join the livestream. Only registered participants have received the access code for the livestream.
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Presentations
10:30 - 10:48

Modeling and simulation of the Ukrainian residential building stock : application to the evaluation of gas demand

Tarik Bouhal1, Valentin Gavan2

1Energeo - LR Technologies Groupe, 35 rue des chantiers, 78000 Versailles, France; 2ENGIE Lab CRIGEN, 4, Street Josephine Baker, 93240 Stains, France

Aim and Approach

(max 200 words)

The present study focuses on the modeling and simulation of the Ukrainian residential building stock. The aim of this research is to evaluate the gas demand for different end-uses such as space heating, domestic hot water and cooking, at a local, regional and national scale. The building stock model is developed using a Modelica based low-order building model. A bottom-up approach is then applied to obtain and parameterize the building stock model by using data from several Ukrainian organisms, such as the State Statistics Service of Ukraine.

The building stock model is able to run for a whole year, by taking into account when to operate in heating or non-heating modes, and with the possibility of combining space as space heating, domestic hot water and cooking. Various occupancy profiles were defined and different building archetypes were considered (individual and collective buildings) with several thermal performance levels. Four different regions and climate zones were considered, based on the Ukrainian climate, and the results are presented for all cases with regards to the different local characteristics.

Scientific Innovation and Relevance

(max 200 words)

The major scientific innovation of the study is represented by the bottom-up model development of the Ukrainian building stock. Using census data and local architectural information, building archetypes were identified for different construction periods. From these archetypes, energy models with physical parameters such as building envelope performance and glazing ratio, or utilization parameters such as heating setpoints or domestic hot water draw function of the occupancy, were developed. Thus, hourly gas demand (space heating, domestic hot water and cooking ) was obtained by dynamically simulating the building stock. The developed modes were validated at building level using field data from meters from 200 end-users.

Therefore, the current work aims to derive a knowledgeable data base for the energy performance parameters concerning the use of gas in Ukraine. It provides useful guidelines about the residential gas demand and the consumption under Ukrainian conditions (technical and economic). The combined effects of building archetype, consumer profile and climatic conditions on the evolution of gas demand were carried out. The novelty of the present work consists of conducting not only an energy assessment but also providing insights for the development of a roadmap intended to improve the national gas consumption metering and pricing system.

Preliminary Results and Conclusions

(max 200 words)

Thanks to these studies, we draw the gas demand pattern for heating, domestic hot water and cooking. Findings show that the gas demand depends mainly on the building type, consumer behaviour and climate. The developed numerical models developed in this work can serve as a tool to assess and improve the performance of the buildings and thus evaluate structural reforms from a technical and economic point of view, destinated to decrease the gas demand of the Ukrainian building stock. The applicability of model remains valid for other countries for improving the performance of potential buildings and their renovation because, in addition to technical parameters related to building archetypes, other aspects are taken into account in the model such as building envelope, energy systems and ambient conditions.

Main References

(max 200 words)

[1] Bayramov A, Marusyk Y. Ukraine's unfinished natural gas and electricity reforms: one step forward, two steps back. Eurasian Geography and Economics 2019;60(1):73-96.

[2] Energy efficiency requirements in building codes, energy efficiency policies for new buildings. IEA information paper.

[3] Gavan V., M. A. ( 7-9 August 2017.). Development of a district modeling approach for buildings using 3DEXPERIENCE and Dymola/Modelica environments. Building Simulation 2017. San Francisco.

[4] Bulych Y. Spatial planning and urban development. Country Profiles on Housing and Land Management: Ukraine, United Nations, New York and Geneva 2013;:35-48.

[5] Spoladore A, Borelli D, Devia F, Mora F, Schenone C. Model for forecasting residential heat demand based on natural gas consumption and energy performance indicators. Applied Energy 2016;182:488-99.

[6] Bruckner T, Blavdzevitch A, Groscurth HM, Kummel R. Rational use of energy in the Ukraine: a pilot study for desna. Energy 1994;19(4):489-97.

[7] Cousin J., Leo J., Duchayne C., Gavan V. Development and validation of a low-order thermal model for building behavior in Modelica. Building Simulation 2019, Rome, 2-4 September 2019.



10:48 - 11:06

Application of optimisation, building energy simulation and life cycle assessment to the design of an urban building construction project.

Aurore Wurtz, Patrick Schalbart, Bruno Peuportier

Mines ParisTech, France

Aim and Approach

(max 200 words)

Building is the E.U. economic sector with highest final energy consumption. In response to concerns about climate change, energy security and social equity, countries around the world plan to substantially reduce energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions. Moreover, 55% of the world’s population lives in urban areas, a proportion that is expected to rise to 68% by 2050. For these reasons, neighbourhood environmental impacts have to be minimised with reliable tools offering economically viable solutions.

Scientific Innovation and Relevance

(max 200 words)

This paper presents a multicriteria optimisation methodology developed in order to reduce both investment and environmental costs of buildings. The life cycle assessment methodology used in this study allows to evaluate environmental impacts over the whole life cycle of buildings. Individual building optimisation and simultaneous optimisation of several buildings were carried out considering various criteria such as environmental impacts and construction cost, in the case of a 5 hectare urban project.

A genetic algorithm was implemented in order to identify Pareto-optimal solutions associating a life cycle assessment tool and building energy simulation. NSGA-II algorithm was implemented in a first step and a comparison with NSGA-III algorithm is considered in perspective.

Preliminary Results and Conclusions

(max 200 words)

Results present optimal Pareto fronts minimising investment costs and CO2 emissions of buildings. In this way, a decision-making aid is proposed to urban projects planners.

Main References

(max 200 words)

BRANKE, J.,DEB, K.,MIETTINEN, K. et SLOWINSKI, R., 2008. Multiobjective optimization: Interactive and evolutionary approaches. In : Springer Science & Business Media.

COSTA-CARRAPIÇO, I., RASLAN, R. et GONZÁLEZ, J. N., 2020. A systematic review of genetic algorithm-based multi-objective optimisation for building retrofitting strategies towards energy efficiency. In : Energy and Buildings. 2020. Vol. 210.

DEB, K., 2001. Multi-Objective Optimization using Evolutionary Algorithms. S.l. : John Wiley & Sons.

DEB, K.,PRATAP, A.,AGARWAL, S. et MEYARIVAN, T., 2000. A fast and elitist multiobjective genetic algorithm: NSGA-II. In : IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation. 2000. Vol. 6, n° 2, p. 182‑197.

KISS, B. et SZALAY, Z., 2020. Modular approach to multi-objective environmental optimization of buildings. In : Automation in Construction. March 1, 2020. Vol. 111.

SCHWARTZ, Y., RASLAN, R. et MUMOVIC, D., 2016. Implementing multi objective genetic algorithm for life cycle carbon footprint and life cycle cost minimisation: A building refurbishment case study. In : Energy. 2016. Vol. 97, p. 58‑68.

ZITZLER, E., 1999. Evolutionary algorithms for multiobjective optimization: Methods and applications. Doctoral thesis. Swiss Federal Institute of Technology of Zurich (ETH).



11:06 - 11:24

Renovating Flanders: a building classification approach to assess large-scale renovation costs

Guillermo Borragán, Dorien Aerts, Glenn Reynders, Yixiao Ma, Lukas Engelen, Stijn Verbeke

VITO-Energy Ville, Belgium

Aim and Approach

(max 200 words)

As part of the strategy to improve energy efficiency and decarbonize the building stock, the Flemish government has set the target to renovate the residential stock 1 by 2050. However, an old housing stock integrated by a large number of detached buildings suggest that finding a good cost-efficiency balance is neither an easy nor an inexpensive task. Having accurate figures about the costs and benefits of renovation is essential not only to anticipate public aids but also to boost private investment. Earlier studies trying to describe building typologies (e.g. IEE-Tabula2) focused on energy use profiles rather than on renovation potential. The recent availability of new (big)(open) data (e.g. GIS, consumption data, heat maps…) enables the development of machine learning classification techniques to create more accurate building set representations. The purpose of the present study is to develop a massive classification approach to identify the type of renovation plan and the associated costs for the different building typologies in Flanders to comply with the 2050 target.

Scientific Innovation and Relevance

(max 200 words)

With more than 9 out of 10 buildings in Flanders requiring substantial renovations during the next three decades3, there is a growing need to develop automatic cost-effective approaches that provide home owners and tenants with comprehensive renovation advice. The approach undertaken in this study goes a step forward and generates specific renovation plans for all the building typologies identified at the level of Flanders. Our bottom-up classification algorithm based on K-prototypes uses both numerical and categorical publicly available statistical and geometrical information to categorize the different buildings according to the type of intervention needed. Then, the renovation costs are estimated using the EBECS tool, an in-use software developed at Energy Ville that uses real energy consumption to calculate renovation needs and costs. In contrast to previous classification schemes, the typologies generated in this work are not subjected to any predefined limitation, providing thus a more accurate profiling. The methodology is also very interesting from a timing point of view as it is coincident with the European renovation wave and the new directives on the Flemish Renovation Pact. Besides, it proposes a new approach to update the first classification of reference building types in Europe (IEE-Tabula) developed already 9 years ago.

Preliminary Results and Conclusions

(max 200 words)

Although still in a preliminary phase, our firsts simulations confirmed that the selected variables (including construction year, number of occupants, building type and building physics parameters such as u-values and WWR) were sufficient to provide decent classification results. Besides, results disclosed the existence of comparable renovation needs for buildings located closely. This fact makes sense given that the construction year is often a relevant variable in our models. Nevertheless, it also advises the relevancy of focusing the renovation efforts on buildings clusters4 rather than individual buildings. This is interesting since large/medium-scale renovation plans might bring reduced renovation costs. On top of this, we find also significant differences in renovation potential which suggest that our classification algorithm presents a good sensitive to detect the building heterogeneity of the Flemish building stock. This last fact could contribute to trigger new renovation strategies in Flanders.

Main References

(max 200 words)

1. Pact R. The energy targets for Flemish homes by 2050. https://www.energiesparen.be/energiedoelstellingen-tegen-2050.

2. Ballarini I, Corgnati SP, Corrado V. Use of reference buildings to assess the energy saving potentials of the residential building stock: The experience of TABULA project. Energy Policy. 2014. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2014.01.027

3. Vlaamse Regering. Long-term strategy for the renovation of Flemish Buildings. Performance, Energy Dir Build. 2020;(May).

4. Ghiassi N, Mahdavi A. Reductive bottom-up urban energy computing supported by multivariate cluster analysis. Energy Build. 2017;144:372-386. doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2017.03.004



11:24 - 11:42

Can Archive Film Stores in the global South achieve net zero and reliable Energy?

Elli Nikolaidou, Harrison King, David Coley

University of Bath, United Kingdom

Aim and Approach

(max 200 words)

Archive film stores aim to preserve the cultural heritage of countries by protecting their photographic films from degrading. This is however challenging for many countries in the global south due to the associated construction cost. Even if this is surpassed, there is commonly a lack of funding for running costs, which can be very high due to the need to store films at low temperatures. Such countries also often need to cope with highly aggressive climates and intermittent electricity grids, while acting on the global need for “affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy services” (UN 2015).

Various service-side and construction-side solutions are tested, in an effort to investigate the potential of archive film stores to achieve net zero and reliable energy and hence protect their film stocks and the environment. An exemplar film store is modelled in different locations in the global south, with its performance being predicted by a popular thermal simulation engine.

Scientific Innovation and Relevance

(max 200 words)

The importance of achieving universal access to sustainable and reliable energy is recognised in the seventh Sustainable Development Goal set by the United Nations (UN 2015). Nevertheless, according to surveys conducted between 2010 and 2020 by the World Bank, 75.5% of manufacturing firms in sub-Saharan African countries still suffer from frequent energy outages, with a monthly average of 8.3 outages (The World Bank 2020). In addition to disrupting the smooth operation of buildings, such outages detrimentally affect the environment due to the energy inefficient backup generators that need to be used, these being typically powered by diesel fuel (Farquharson et al. 2018).

Focusing on film stores, sustainable and reliable energy is critical, as building operation significantly affects the lifespan of film stocks. Despite the increasing popularity of low/net zero energy buildings, there is a lack of low/net zero archive film stores in the global south, which may jeopardise the goal for “sustainable and reliable energy for all”. Hence, this study focuses on identifying design solutions that can help the film stores located in such countries achieve net zero and reliable energy.

Preliminary Results and Conclusions

(max 200 words)

Despite their high space cooling energy demand, archive film stores demonstrate a great potential for net zero and reliable energy in the majority of the simulated locations. Renewable energy production with the help of photovoltaic panels was vital for securing the energy surplus that is required for the energy independence of the store. The best-performing solutions are presented, these being found to vary from one location to another due to the gamut of climates that are observed in the global south. Meeting the requirements of building regulations and/or standards (such as the Passivhaus standard) calls for an increase in the cooling setpoint, this however making film stocks more prone to degrading. This trade-off is illustrated and discussed to provide guidance on the design of archive film stores in the global south.

Main References

(max 200 words)

Farquharson, D., Jaramillo, P., and Samaras, C., 2018. Sustainability implications of electricity outages in sub-Saharan Africa. Nature Sustainability, 1 (10), 589–597.

The World Bank, 2020. Enterprise Surveys [online]. Available from: http://www.enterprisesurveys.org/ [Accessed 25 Apr 2020].

UN, 2015. Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.



11:42 - 12:00

Methodology for comparison of nZEB ambition level in different countries by building and system simulation

Carsten Wemhoener1, Fabian Ochs2, Mara Magni2, Christina Betzold3

1Institute of Energy Technology, University of Applied Sciences Eastern Switzerland, Switzerland; 2Unit for Energy Efficient Building, UIBK, University of Innsbruck, Austria; 3Technische Hochschule Nuremberg Georg Simon Ohm, Germany

Aim and Approach

(max 200 words)

By the beginning of January 2021 all new buildings in the EU member states have to comply with nearly Zero Energy Building (nZEB) requirements according to the implementation of the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD recast, 2018). Despite different harmonisation initiatives, e.g. ISO (2017) the implementation of nZEB requirements in the single EU member states differs in criteria, metrics and limits. On top of that, national calculation methods and boundary conditions are used for the nZEB compliance rating in the different countries. By the different implementation among the EU member states, it can be presumed that some member states set higher requirements to the building performance than other member states. However, it is hard to compare this ambition level among the EU member states, i.e. the member state's ambition to reach highly performant buildings as future new built standard. In the framework of the IEA research project HPT Annex 49, a methodology has been developed and tested by building and system simulation of a reference building according to the reference framework (Dott et al., 2013) for the nZEB requirements and boundary conditions in the participating countries.

Scientific Innovation and Relevance

(max 200 words)

In order to further develop the requirements for future building standards across Europe, it is important to characterise the state-of-the-art in EU member states after the introduction of the EPBD recast by the beginning of 2021. Therefore, a consistent methodology is needed to assess the performance level of building requirements among the EU member states. A more harmonised nZEB definition among countries is of high interest both for the building technology industry in order to develop performant system solution sets, which comply with requirements across European countries and for policy makers to set adequate targets in the EU member states to promote the energy transition required to achieve climate protection targets.

Furthermore, benchmarks for different ambition levels have been defined. The Net Zero Energy building where only the self-consumed on-site electricity is taken into account in the balancing as upper performance limit, the building physics requirements in terms of avoidance of surface moisture condensation and comfort temperatures as lowest possible limit and the cost optimal building as minimum requirement according to EU regulations.

Preliminary Results and Conclusions

(max 200 words)

The proposed methodology outlined in Wemhoener et al. (2019) has been further developed to include measures for the building envelope, HVAC technology and renewable production on-site. The method consists of the implementation of the national nZEB requirements for a reference building, which is then transferred to common boundary conditions by simulation and compared to references. Three approaches have been tested:

(i) Transfer of the reference building to a common site,

(ii) comparison of the reference building to a high performance building of a passive house in local climate conditions and

(iii) comparison of the reference building with the cost optimal building, which is considered as minimum ambition level for the national nZEB implementation.

From these comparisons a graphical depiction of the ambition level has been deduced in the colour code of energy performance certificates, where further ambition level, e.g. the EU benchmarks given in EC (2016) can be included. The depiction takes into account trade-offs between primary energy and cost.

Furthermore, a tabled version can be set-up to list relative one-to-one comparison between buildings of different ambition levels, e.g. the national implementation compared to the EU benchmarks or compared to the best NZEB as mentioned above.

Main References

(max 200 words)

Dott, R., Haller, M.Y., Ruschenburg, J., Ochs, F., Bony, J. 2013. The Reference Framework for System simulations of the IEA SHC Task 44 / HPP Annex 38, Part B: Buildings and space heat load, Report C1 Part B.

EU. 2018.DIRECTIVE (EU) 2018/844 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 30 May 2018 amending Directive 2010/31/EU on the energy performance of buildings and Directive 2012/27/EU on energy efficiency, Official Journal of the European Union, L/156/75-91

EC. 2016. Commission recommendation (EU) 2016/1318 of 29 July 2016 on guidelines for the promotion of nearly zero-energy buildings and best practices to ensure that, by 2020, all new buildings are nearly zero-energy buildings, Official Journal of the European Union, L/208/46-57

International Organisation for Standardisation (2017). Energy performance of buildings-Overarching EPB assessment -- Part 1: General framework and procedures (ISO 52000-1:2017).

Wemhoener et al. (2019). Simulation-based methodology for comparison of nZEB require-ments in different countries including results of model calibration tests, Proceedings of the 16th IBPSA Conference Rome, Italy, Sept. 2-4, 2019, pp. 5060-5067



 
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